Varieties[ edit ] A toga praetexta The toga was an approximately semi-circular woolen cloth, usually white, worn draped over the shoulders and around the body: It was considered formal wear, and was generally reserved for citizens.
The Romans considered it unique to themselves; thus their poetic description by Virgil and Martial as the gens togata toga-wearing race  There were many kinds of toga, each reserved by custom to particular usage or social class. Toga virilis "toga of manhood" also known as toga alba or toga pura: A plain white toga, worn on formal occasions by adult male commoners, and by Senators not having a curule magistracy.
It represented adult male citizenship and its attendant rights, freedoms and responsibilities. It was formal costume for: Curule magistrates in their official functions, and traditionally, the Kings of Rome. It marked their protection by law from sexual predation and immoral or immodest influence. A praetexta was thought effective against malignant magic, as were a boy's bullaand a girl's lunula.
Toga candida is the etymological source of the word candidate. A toga praetexta was also acceptable as mourning wear, if turned inside out to conceal its stripe; so was a plain toga pura. Cicero makes a distinction between the toga pulla and an ordinary toga deliberately "dirtied" by its wearer as a legitimate mark of protest or supplication.
Dyed solid purple, embroidered with gold, and worn over a similarly decorated tunica palmata; used by generals in their triumphs. During the Empire, it was worn by consuls and emperors. Over time, it became increasingly elaborate, and was combined with elements of the consular trabea. Trabea, associated with citizens of equestrian rank ; thus their description as trabeati in some contemporary Roman literature.
It may have been a shorter form of toga, or a cloak, wrap or sash worn over a toga.
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It was white, with a red or purple stripe. In the later Imperial era, trabea refers to elaborate forms of consular dress. Some later Roman and post-Roman sources describe it as solid purple or red, either identifying or confusing it with the dress worn by the ancient Roman kings also used to clothe images of the gods or reflecting changes in the trabea itself.
More certainly, equites wore an angusticlaviaa tunic with narrow, vertical purple stripes, at least one of which would have been visible when worn with a toga or trabeia, whatever its form. Laena, a long, heavy cloak worn by Flamen priesthoods, fastened at the shoulder with a brooch. A lost work by Suetonius describes it as a toga made "duplex" doubled by folding over upon itself. Landowning patrician aristocrats occupied most seats in the senate and held the most senior magistracies.
Magistrates were elected by their peers and "the people"; in Roman constitutional theory, they ruled by consent.
How to Wear a Toga the Ancient Roman Way The Getty Iris
In practise, they were a mutually competitive oligarchy, reserving the greatest power, wealth and prestige to their class. The commoners who made up the vast majority of the Roman electorate had limited influence on politics, unless barracking or voting en masse, or through representation by their tribunes. The Equites sometimes loosely translated as "knights" occupied a broadly mobile, mid-position between the lower senatorial and upper commoner class.
Despite often extreme disparities of wealth and rank between the citizen classes, the toga identified them as a singular and exclusive civic body.
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Conversely, and just as usefully, it underlined their differences. Togas were relatively uniform in pattern and style but varied significantly in the quality and quantity of their fabric, and the marks of higher rank or office. The highest status toga, the solidly purple, gold-embroidered toga picta could be worn only at particular ceremonies by the highest ranking magistrates.
Tyrian purple was supposedly reserved for the toga picta, the border of the toga praetexta, and elements of the priestly dress worn by the inviolate Vestal Virgins.
It was colour-fast, extremely expensive and the "most talked-about colour in Greco-Roman antiquity". The purple-bordered praetexta worn by freeborn youths acknowledged their vulnerability and sanctity under law. Once a boy came of age usually at puberty he adopted the plain white toga virilis; this meant that he was free to set up his own household, marry, and vote.
Senatorial versions were expensively laundered to an exceptional, snowy white; those of lower ranking citizens were a duller shade, more cheaply laundered. Formal seating arrangements in public theatres and circuses reflected the dominance of Rome's togate elect.
Senators sat at the very front, equites behind them, common citizens behind equites; and so on, through the non-togate mass of freedmen, foreigners, and slaves. In Livy 's history of Romethe patrician hero Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatusretired from public life and clad presumably in tunic or loincloth, is ploughing his field when emissaries of the Senate arrive, and ask him to put on his toga.
His wife fetches it and he puts it on. Then he is told that he has been appointed dictator.
He promptly heads for Rome. The toga was heavy, "unwieldy, excessively hot, easily stained, and hard to launder";  It was best suited to stately processions, public debate and oratory, sitting in the theatre or circus, and displaying oneself before one's peers and inferiors while "ostentatiously doing nothing".
It dates from the early Imperial Era and probably shows an event during Compitaliaa popular street-festival In the early second century AD, the satirist Juvenal claimed that "in a great part of Italy, no-one wears the toga, except in death"; in Martial's rural idyll there is "never a lawsuit, the toga is scarce, the mind at ease". Family, friendships and alliances, and the gainful pursuit of wealth through business and trade would have been their major preoccupations.
He wore it at his funeral, and it probably served as his shroud. Only a higher-caste Roman, a magistrate, would have had lictors to clear his way, and even then, wearing a toga was a challenge.
The toga's apparent natural simplicity and "elegant, flowing lines" were the result of diligent practice and cultivation; to avoid an embarrassing disarrangement of its folds, its wearer must walk with measured, stately gait;  but not too stately. He must seem to contain a virile purpose and energy.
If he moved too slowly, he might seem aimless, "sluggish of mind" - or, worst of all, "womanly". If you were to gather young Greek-Americans in one room there might be all of 25 couples with the overwhelming majority of people in the room being single looking to find someone.
These questions were the topic of discussion over the weekend among a small group of Greeks, all in their 20s, each of different life experience and opinions. Too often among Greek-Americans, if a Greek guy actually gets to the point of asking a Greek girl out, you get the 3-Date 3-D or 1-Month 1-M period, after which there is a good likelihood that either the guy or the girl will freak out, thus ending the relationship.
How can two perfectly good Greeks tragically end a potentially nice relationship even before it gets a chance to develop? Often the guy or the girl realizes that the person sitting across from them at dinner on their third date is a nice enough person who they could easily bring home to mom and dad in a few months.
For starters they are Greek, satisfying the first and most important criteria, hereinafter referred to as 1. Of course, many Greeks feel that every relationship with another Greek that lasts past 3-D or 1-M will naturally lead to that sunny Sunday afternoon in June that will have pappou and yiayia flying miles to make.
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If this image freaks out one of the participants in this relationship, even in the slightest bit, you can rest assured that this relationship will soon end, often without the other participant even knowing why. This 3-D or 1-M rule absolutely horrified the woman in our group who had spent time back in Greece. Why would anyone freak out and end a relationship just before it really had a chance to progress?