SHARE Although studying creativity is considered a legitimate scientific discipline nowadays, it is still a very young one. In the early s, a psychologist named J. Guilford was one of the first academic researchers who dared to conduct a study of creativity.
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He challenged research subjects to connect all nine dots using just four straight lines without lifting their pencils from the page. Today many people are familiar with this puzzle and its solution.
In the s, however, very few were even aware of its existence, even though it had been around for almost a century. If you have tried solving this puzzle, you can confirm that your first attempts usually involve sketching lines inside the imaginary square.
The correct solution, however, requires you to draw lines that extend beyond the area defined by the dots. Only 20 percent managed to break out of the illusory confinement and continue their lines in the white space surrounding the dots.
The symmetry, the beautiful simplicity of the solution, and the fact that 80 percent of the participants were effectively blinded by the boundaries of the square led Guilford and the readers of his books to leap to the sweeping conclusion that creativity requires you to go outside the box. The idea went viral via s-era media and word of mouth, of course. Overnight, it seemed that creativity gurus everywhere were teaching managers how to think outside the box.
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Management consultants in the s and s even used this puzzle when making sales pitches to prospective clients. Because the solution is, in hindsight, deceptively simple, clients tended to admit they should have thought of it themselves.
Or so their consultants would have them believe.
There seemed to be no end to the insights that could be offered under the banner of thinking outside the box. Dove Cameron This year-old found her debut when she played double roles as two sisters in the show Liv and Maddie which ran for 4 seasons.
She is known not only for her acting skills, but also for her beautiful voice which she has used on stage for plays like Mamma Mia and Hairspray. Besides being in Liv and Maddie, she has also made appearances on famous shows like the Mentalist and Shameless. She also portrayed the daughter of the evil fairy Maleficent in the television movie Descendants and Descendants 2.
She has been nominated quite a few times for the Teen Choice Award. She became famous after acting as the bratty Gerti Giggles in the Spy Kids franchise. Currently, she is starring on Young and Hungry as the lead.
After leaving Hannah Montana she went to establish a singing career, with many of her singles being featured on Disney albums.
Joe Jonas This American actor and singer found his beginnings in the band Jonas Brothers, which he started with his two brothers Nick and Kevin. Though their first attempts were not very successful, they were picked up by Disney who helped them in advancing their career.
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They also starred in movies like Camp Rock and many series and documentaries about the life of the band. She has had two songs on the Billboard top list from the soundtrack of the movie Lemonade Mouth.
Hillary Duff Hillary Duff played the lead role in Lizzy McGuire, which was the earliest and most successful show in the beginning years of Disney channel. She has found much fame and admiration from the teens who saw her show and she had attained a superstar status very early in her professional life.
She has had a strong music career with albums like Dignity and Most Wanted, the last one achieving Platinum status.
She is now a mother with one son and has been active in many charities involving children. Nick Jonas Nick Jonas started his career as the guitarist of the band the Jonas Brothers, which he formed with his elder brothers Kevin and Joe.