It is known somewhat incorrectly as the Pink City due to the distinct color of its buildings. Jaipur is known as much for its fascinating monuments and colorful markets as it is for its gorgeous handloom garments and wonderfully laid-out gardens. It is really not very difficult to fall in love with Jaipur the moment you land here.
Not only does it attract domestic travelers, Jaipur is often an important stopover for foreign tourists. Jaipur also serves as a stepping stone for those who want to travel to the interiors of Rajasthan. Whether it is the majestic Jodhpur or Jaisalmerthe desert city of Rajasthan or quite simply the lesser-known Shekhawati region, Jaipur serves as a starting point for all these places and more.
So far, traveling within Rajasthan was restricted to road and rail. Unlike several other kings and emperors of his time, Jai Singh II was as keen an astronomer as he was a great warrior. He ascended the throne at the tender age of 11 after his father Bishan Singh passed away. Hailing from the Kucchwaha Rajput clan, Jai Singh carried on his ancestral alliance with the Mughals, in line with the Kucchwaha Rajput policy of diplomacy over war. As with all alliances, this one too had its share of ups and downs but the lowest point came after the death of Aurangzeb who once favored Jai Singh and had also given him the title Sawai.
He married the princess of Mewar and won the trust of the Marwar king and together they expelled the Mughals from Rajputana. Jai Singh earned his place at the table once again and was appointed to govern important Mughal provinces. And it was then that he built a city around Amber Fort that would serve as his capital. He named the city Jaipur, after himself. While four of them remain landmarks in their respective cities, there are no traces of the Mathura Jantar Mantar.
For the want of a name for the color gerua is closer to ochre than pink the British called it pink and the name stuck. Despite the rampant construction and unplanned development in the modern times, Jaipur still retains much of its charm.
The ticket costs Rs 50 for Indian citizens, Rs 1, for foreigners and Rs 30 for Indian students and is valid for two days. With intricately latticework jharokhas or small windows, Hawa Mahal served as a perfect cover for the Rajput women to watch the everyday goings-on and the special processions on the streets below.
In the centuries that followed, it was Hawa Mahal that shot into prominence and became the icon of a city that attracted people from all over the world. The lattice permitted the royal ladies to watch life pass by in the streets below without being seen in return and thus maintaining their purdah. The latticework also serves another purpose by allowing only the cool breeze to pass through thus working as a natural air conditioner of sorts even in peak summers.
Construction on the City Palace was completed in and it served as the seat of power for the Maharaja of Jaipur. Even to this day, a part of the City Palace is out of bounds for general public because it continues to serve as home to the erstwhile royal family of Jaipur. The city Palace complex is home to Chandra Mahal and Mubarak Mahal and its various iconic gates — Udai Pol, Tripolia Gate and Virendra Pol among others — blend the Rajput style of architecture with that of Mughals and European, the two powers that the Kucchwaha Rajputs allied themselves with during their time in power.
The city of Jaipur was planned in six blocks that were separated by broad avenues. City Palace also has a museum that displays a wide array of royal costumes, some very exquisite and precious Pashmina shawls, Benaras silk saris, Sanganeri prints and folk embroidery as well as weaponry used by the Rajputs and other knick-knacks that provide a glimpse into the life and times of the various Sawais.
Ujjain, Delhi and Varanasi are the other cities that house the remaining Jantar Mantars but there remain no traces of the one at Mathura. In all there are 19 instruments that help observe astronomical positions with the naked eye. Jantar Mantar is a fine example of Ptolemaic positional astronomy and has instruments that operate in each of the three main classical celestial coordinate systems: When it suffered some damage in the 19th century, Major Arthur Garrett, an amateur astronomer who was posted as the Assistant State Engineer in Jaipur, undertook the first major restoration work on Jantar Mantar.
While it was being built, there were various suggestions about how to put the building to the best use. Needless to say, the building was considered as a venue for a town hall or as a venue for a school or an education institution. But Madho Singh approved the idea of turning it into a museum in Construction on the building was completed in Albert Hall Museum has a somewhat eclectic collection of things on display — from dioramas to tribal costumes, miniature paintings to carpets and, for good measure, even an Egyptian mummy!
One of the most beautiful palaces in India, Rambagh once served as the residence to the Maharaja of Jaipur. While the palace has been converted into a very fine hotel, the family continues to receive preference even to this day.
By all estimates, Rambagh is the most expensive hotel in Jaipur. Under the reign of Madho Singh, this garden house and its surroundings received an upgrade and the house was converted into a royal hunting lodge since at the time it was surrounded by thick forest.
This task — of converting a garden house into a hunting lodge — was given to Sir Swinton Jacob, the same man who designed the Albert Hall Museum. Eventually marble halls, corridors and courtyards were added to the garden site and Man Singh II made Rambagh Palace his main residence in The palace was also home to Maharani Gayatri Devi and has hosted several dignitaries from India and around the world.
Suvarna Mahal, located in the former palace ballroom, serves Indian cuisine, Rajput Room and Verandah Cafe offer multi-cuisine options while Steam, the lounge bar offers some great Mediterranean delights. Rambagh Palace showcases the best of Rajasthani and Mughal architecture and since it is run by the Taj Group, it remains one of the few well-maintained buildings of its time. Rambagh Palace is not open for public viewing. To see it from the inside, you will either need to book a stay here or get a table at one of the restaurants.
Since it is a five-star hotel, the prices are obviously steep but there are few things that come close to walking down the haloed corridors of this spectacular structure. If, however, you do book a stay at Rambagh, ask the duty manager for a heritage tour of the palace. The tour lasts about 45 minutes. At first glance, the palace that was constructed inappears to float on the waters of the lake thus giving it the name.
Man Sagar Lake, amidst which it stands, is an artificial lake that was formed when a dam was constructed over the river Dharbawati in the early s. Jal Mahal is located on the outskirts of Jaipur en route to Amber. The hills across the lake are dotted with forts and old temples which can be seen in the background of the palace. While boat rides to the palace were available a few years ago, they have now stopped making it a photos-only destination.
Constructed in red sandstone Jal Mahal is a five-storied building that blends Rajput and Mughal styles of architecture. Four floors of Jal Mahal remain underwater when the lake is full.
Today, Jal Mahal has been converted into a luxury hotel and is managed by the Taj Group. Restored and refurbished, Jal Mahal Palace Hotel has 94 rooms and six suites as well as multiple restaurants. Marble Arch is a multi-cuisine all-day dining restaurant and Marigold Bar boasts of a spectacular selection of single malts and cigars and innovative cocktails.
Since Jal Mahal is a private property, it remains out of bounds for public. The only way to see Jal Mahal from the inside is to either stay there or book a table at one of these restaurants.
Amber Fort Amber Fort stands on the outskirts of Jaipur, some 13 km from the city center. As with almost all other structures in the area of its era, Amber Fort brings together elements of Hindu and Mughal architecture. Built with red sandstone, Amber saw considerable modifications over time as successive rulers added their own elements to it over a span of a century and a half.
In several ways, Amber is less of a military fortress like Jaigarh or Nahargarh and more of a pleasure palace. Precious stones were once embedded in the walls and ceilings of Amber. The stones have long gone but the intricate carvings and mirror work remain and offer a glimpse of just how grand Amber Fort must have been at the peak of its power. The fort complex houses several palaces constructed in the Mughal style of architecture and a fortified tunnel that connects it to Jaigarh.
The tunnel was built as an escape route for members of the royal family so they could take refuge in Jaigarh, a far safer place than Amber. Amber gets its name from Amba, the goddess of the Meena clan that ruled the fort and its surrounding areas in AD. Amber fell into the hands of the Kucchwaha Rajputs in AD. Amber remained the seat of power of the Kucchwaha Rajputs for close to seven hundred years, right up until AD. Jai Singh II built a new city for his fast-growing population.
Two to three hours Nahargarh Fort Standing on the edge of the Aravallis and overlooking Jaipur, Nahargarh Fort is one of the three major forts on the outskirts of the city.
Alongside Jaigarh and Amber, Nahargarh formed defense ring of Jaipur. But Nahargarh went by a different name. Additional links to images of similar bottles are also frequently included. The array of references used to support the conclusions and estimates found here - including the listed dating ranges - are noted. Additional information and estimates are based on the empirical observations of the content manager over 50 years of experience; this is often but not always noted.
Various terminology is used in the descriptions that may be unfamiliar if you have not studied other pages on this site. If a term is unfamiliar, first check the Bottle Glossary page for an explanation or definition. As an alternative, one can do a search of this website. Mineral water in bottles goes back before that as it is known that bottled waters were being produced in - and likely imported from - Europe as early as the late 17th century and surely by the end of American Revolutionary War.
The earliest bottles that were used were probably not distinguishable from the bottles used for many other products like beer, ale, cider fermented apple juiceand even various spirits Guest The bottle to the left is likely an early American soda water or ale bottle. This was a generic bottle produced by the glassworks for those who wished to label their product or did not want to bear the extra cost of proprietary embossing, though this style was offered frequently as a plate mold and proprietary embossing is very common on these bottle types.
Big eastern seaboard cities like New York and Philadelphia had scores of different proprietary embossed examples made for local bottlers von Mechow Judging from embossed specimens, this shape was rarely used west of the Mississippi with a few notable exceptions in Colorado, Kansas, Iowa, and likely a few other states. Click on the following link for a base view image of this bottle. The early porter, stout, and ale bottles with the shapes noted above typically date from the s or earlier.
During and after the s, these general styles faded from popularity as some of the other styles covered below rose in popularity. The squatty style for beer never totally faded out with some English ale bottles still bearing a resemblance to the style empirical observations.
The squatty "porter" shape - as some glassmakers called it - was actually still being produced as late as IGCo. Also see Tod von Mechow's exceptional website on early soda, mineral water and beer bottles at the following link for more information on specific diagnostic features of these type bottles which can help refine the dating: As with most early bottle styles these have squatty bodies, i. This style also has a relative short neck and finish which in combination are usually less than half the height of the body on the pint bottles and somewhat less than the body height on the quarts pictured below.
Though an early type style it continued to be used until the late 19th century and was closely identified with the mineral waters of the Saratoga Springs area of east central New York.
This style was also used around the country by other mineral water purveyors including a few on the West Coast most likely to try to recreate the "cachet" in their offerings of the famous Saratoga Springs, N. Linked photo courtesy of American Bottle Auctions. The Saratoga style mineral water usually was made, not surprisingly, with a mineral type finish.
This style of bottle is almost certainly the reason this finish was and was and is called the "mineral" finish as it is almost ubiquitous to the style. Some other finish styles were used on occasion - like the oil, brandy, and very rarely rolled or sheared finishes - but far and away the most commonly observed is the mineral finish.
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In fact, it is also occasionally called the "Saratoga" lip or finish Tucker There were likely scores or hundreds of different companies that bottled mineral water in this style of bottle with a large amount of them operating in the Saratoga Springs area of New York, though similar bottles range widely across the country from the South to the far West, as noted above Tucker This probably was done in an attempt to get as many as possible of these expensive-to-produce bottles back for re-use.
The olive amber mineral water bottle pictured to the above left is one of the earlier embossed Saratoga style bottles and could have been addressed under the first section on "early" styles above.
This bottle is also the first of four bottles illustrated that were products from the same or related companies which bottled water from springs in the Saratoga, NY area, i.
It is likely that the pictured bottle dates from the latter half of this period as they were known to have been blown by the Saratoga Mountain Glass Works Mt. This bottle has a crudely applied mineral finish, pontil scarred base sand pontiland was blown in a post-bottom mold with no air venting in evidence - all attributes befitting the early age of this bottle.
Click on the following links to view more images of the John Clarke bottle: This bottle is very crude throughout the body with lots of bubbles and waviness i.
Since this bottle does not have a pontil scar it likely dates from the latter half of the noted period, i. This is an example of the dating refinement possible with the presence or absence of various diagnostic features.
Click on the following links to view more pictures of this bottle: This the third bottle from the same progression of companies noted above. This bottle represents the pint style that was used by this company and many other companies between about and at least the late s to early s Tucker These bottles were exported in quantity to the West Coast as evidenced by this particular bottle being excavated in Portland, OR.
This bottle, which dates from the s, also has about two-thirds of the contents in place showing that corks were an effective - but not perfect - closure method since the contents are not still carbonated if they were originally carbonated.
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The mineral finish provided a secure attachment ledge for wiring down a cork, with the anchor being either between the upper and lower parts like in the pictured bottle or below the flared lower part or collar at the base of the finish. Photo courtesy of Glass Works Auctions. It has the typical crudely applied mineral finish, was blown in a post-bottom mold, and has single small air vents on the front and back shoulder all of which point towards the noted date range, this being a relatively early bottle with visible mold air venting marks.
Saratoga style bottles are not that commonly encountered in aqua glass compared to greens but that is the common color for this bottle. There were actually a lot of different mineral water companies around the U. These bottles there were several variations have applied mineral finishes, were blown in post-bottom molds, lack mold air venting, were made in an assortment of colors including many shades of green and cobalt blue, and date from the s Tucker ; Markota Photos courtesy of American Bottle Auctions.
The body shape is essentially identical to other Saratoga style bottles dating back to the s and s. Crown finishes on Saratoga style bottles are very unusual this possibly being the only brand to use such?
The distinctive Saratoga style of bottle continued in use for a very long time spanning the period from the earlier bottles made in the s and s up until the end of the 19th century. The smaller pint sizes fairly consistently have the conformation of the bottles pictured on the left side of this section, thought there are subtle variations as with all types of bottles. Click steep shoulder Congress Water quart to see a quart example with the taller, steeper shoulders.
Later post into the early s bottles may also be found with a tooled finish instead of an applied one, like the crown finish example pictured to the right above. All bottles observed by the author were blown in post-bottom molds illustration to the leftthough living out West, one does not get a chance to observe significant numbers of what are primarily an Eastern American bottle style.
Return to the top of this page. The earliest record of flavored soda water being bottled was in about or when Eugene Roussel Philadelphia, PA. A picture of an early s Roussel bottle is available at this link: These bottles were, of course, also used for traditional mineral water as noted with the first two medium green bottles pictured in this section; the example to the left notes "mineral water" in the embossing.
The blob-top soda style is typified by being cylindrical in cross-section or sometimes multi-sided like the octagonal bottle to the leftwith a variably long steep shoulder which blends gradually into a relatively distinct moderate length neck, topped with one of a variety of one-part blob finishes with very subtle differences two of which are shown in the two pictures below.
As usual, the easiest way to become oriented with this style is to study the pictures found here. The name "blob-top soda" has become widely accepted with only a few alternative names noted, though the term was never used by bottle makers.
Von Mechow defines two subtle variations on this style - the "soda shape" with a more abrupt, shorter shoulder somewhat like the image to the above left and the "pony shape" with a longer, more sloping shoulder image below right although the break between these two variations is hard to define.
Consult Von Mechow's excellent website for more bottle shape information: Blob-top sodas are also frequently seen with another highly popular swing type stopper - the Lightning closures.
Types of Bottle Closures beverage bottle closures section for more information on the subject. The blob soda style, as pictured here, is similar in general form to the smaller champagne style beer bottles, though that style "evolved" later for beer and are usually distinctly larger and taller bottles with somewhat lighter thickness glass, though still fairly heavy.
It has an applied blob finish, faint iron pontil scar on the base, and was blown in a post-bottom mold with no air venting in evidence. It is believed to date from to The address of the company in business directories of the era indicates that it was in the area destroyed by one of several "great fires" that occurred in San Francisco during the early s; specifically the one on June 22nd, The company was not listed as in business in Markota As there were no glass manufacturing facilities in the West prior tothese bottles were blown at a glassworks on the east coast and transported around "the horn" South America by sailing ship to San Francisco.
Toulouse ; Hinson Click on the following links for more view pictures of this bottle: The medium cobalt blue soda bottle pictured to the above right is embossed with C. It has an applied blob finish, no evidence of a pontil scar, and was blown in a post-bottom mold without any evidence of air venting. These manufacturing attributes - including the lack of a pontil scar - are consistent with the known business dates for the company of to ; particularly the later end of this period Markota Click on the following links for more images of this bottle: As shown by the images here, blob sodas were commonly produced in highly colorful glass colors as well as the more mundane aqua glass colorless glass has never been observed but of course possible.
It has an improved pontil mark within the indented base, applied blob finish, was blown in a post-bottom mold, and has no mold air venting as this bottle pre-dates this latter feature by several decades. To view more images of this bottle click on the following links: This bottle is thought by some to be have been used in California but they are known to have been found in the Northeast also.
It is likely that this was a semi-generic type bottle that was used by several bottlers in different parts of the country.
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The pictured bottle has a wide, relatively symmetrical, mushroom style blob finish which was a variation common on earlier ca.
This particular blob-top soda bottle is 8-sided, which was a shape that was frequently used during the era noted and continued to be an occasional shape through at least the s Markota Multi-sided blob-top soda bottles are very uncommon after that time empirical observations. This is an example of a late 19th century blob soda that has a tooled blob finish, very heavy glass thickness, and was blown in a post-bottom mold, though lacks obvious mold air venting marks.
These features indicate a probable manufacturing date of between about and Since beer was also bottled occasionally in this style of bottle click H. Weinhard beer bottle for an example of a "champagne style" beer bottle with virtually this same shape and this bottle is embossed generically with "Bottlers", it is conceivable that it could have been used for beer. For more images of this bottle click on the following links: This bottle also has a slightly less squat appearance than the older bottles pictured above compare the pictures.
Bottles with this more slender shape appear to be typical of later posts soda bottles, but is not likely to be an absolute feature empirical observations.
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An example of Hutchinson style soda bottle [covered later] with the exact same embossing pattern was noted on eBay after the above was written. This provides firmer "proof" that this bottle was almost certainly used for soda or mineral water. According to Ron Fowler's great book on Oregon soda water companies and bottles, this business operated under this name from tothough they filed for the "lion on a column" trade mark in making to the likely date range for manufacture Fowler The physical diagnostic features of this example are consistent with this date range as the bottle has single mold air venting marks on each sides shoulder and a tooled blob finish though the bottle has some crudity stretch marks, bubbles in the glass and was blown in a post-bottom mold.
The author has noted other examples of this bottle blown in the same mold which have an applied blob finish, although these examples are encountered much less often than the tooled examples empirical observations.