They formed three settlements—known as the Eastern Settlementthe Western Settlement and the Middle Settlement —on fjords near the southwestern-most tip of the island.
Norse Greenlanders submitted to Norwegian rule in the 13th century under the Norwegian Empire. Later the Kingdom of Norway entered into a personal union with Denmark inand from was a part of the Kalmar Union.
Medieval Norwegian sagas and historical works mention Greenland's economy as well as the bishops of Gardar and the collection of tithes. Icelandic saga accounts of life in Greenland were composed in the 13th century and later, and do not constitute primary sources for the history of early Norse Greenland.
Interpretation of ice core and clam shell data suggests that between andthe regions around the fjords of southern Greenland experienced a relatively mild climate several degrees Celsius higher than usual in the North Atlantic,  with trees and herbaceous plants growing, and livestock being farmed.
The Eastern Settlement was likely abandoned in the early to midth century, during this cold period.
Theories drawn from archeological excavations at Herjolfsnes in the s, suggest that the condition of human bones from this period indicates that the Norse population was malnourishedmaybe due to soil erosion resulting from the Norsemen's destruction of natural vegetation in the course of farming, turf-cutting, and wood-cutting.
Inthe Inuit attacked the Eastern Settlement, killed 18 men and captured two boys and a woman. Data support traces of a possible Norse soil amendment strategy. In their reluctance to see themselves as anything but Europeans, the Greenlanders failed to adopt the kind of apparel that the Inuit employed as protection against the cold and damp or to borrow any of the Eskimo hunting gear.
HUDOC European Court of Human Rights
No genes from the Paleo-Eskimos have been found in the present population of Greenland. The Thule culture was the first to introduce to Greenland such technological innovations as dog sleds and toggling harpoons. Finding the sea frozen, they headed south and arrived in Labrador and Newfoundland.
Upon the brothers' return to Portugal, the cartographic information supplied by Corte-Real was incorporated into a new map of the world which was presented to Ercole I d'EsteDuke of Ferraraby Alberto Cantino in The Cantino planispheremade in Lisbon, accurately depicts the southern coastline of Greenland.
The expeditions were mostly unsuccessful, partly due to leaders who lacked experience with the difficult arctic ice and weather conditions, and partly because the expedition leaders were given instructions to search for the Eastern Settlement on the east coast of Greenland just north of Cape Farewellwhich is almost inaccessible due to southward drifting ice.
The pilot on all three trips was English explorer James Hall. Ina joint mercantile and clerical expedition led by Danish-Norwegian missionary Hans Egede was sent to Greenland, not knowing whether a Norse civilization remained there. This expedition is part of the Dano-Norwegian colonization of the Americas.
Gradually, Greenland was opened up to Danish merchants, and closed to those from other countries. Norway occupied then-uninhabited eastern Greenland as Erik the Red's Land in Julyclaiming that it constituted terra nullius.
Norway and Denmark agreed to submit the matter in to the Permanent Court of International Justicewhich decided against Norway. On 8 Aprilthe United States occupied Greenland to defend it against a possible invasion by Germany. Greenland was able to buy goods from the United States and Canada by selling cryolite from the mine at Ivittuut. Bluie was the military code name for Greenland. During this war, the system of government changed: Governor Eske Brun ruled the island under a law of that allowed governors to take control under extreme circumstances; Governor Aksel Svane was transferred to the United States to lead the commission to supply Greenland.
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