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  • The redivision of the continent begun by the American Revolution had been intensified by rivalry in the fur trade. The French fur trade of Montreal had been taken over by British American traders who conducted the trade with the aid of French… Character of the city Montreal is a city with considerable French colonial history dating back to the 16th century. It began as a missionary settlement but soon became a fur-trading centre, a role that was enhanced after the conquest of New France by the British in Lawrence proved to be a major advantage in its development as a transportation, manufacturing, and financial centre.

    From the time of the confederation of CanadaMontreal was the largest metropolitan centre in the country until it was overtaken by Toronto in the s. French Canadians are the majority population in Montreal, which is often said to be the second largest French-speaking city in the world after Paristhough the accuracy of that statement is sometimes questioned principally by those who make the same claim for Kinshasa and Algiers.

    Montreal remains a city of great charm, vivacity, and gaiety, as well as one of unquestioned modernity. Bonsecours MarketBonsecours Market, Montreal. Lawrence was a large sea Champlain Sea that eventually drained, leaving the fertile sedimentary St. Lawrence River valley, which is shaped like a funnel—narrow at the Quebec city end and considerably wider upriver at Montreal. Those physical conditions eventually translated into a settlement pattern with more farms and people in and around Montreal than around Quebec city.

    Old PortOld Port section of Montreal. Lawrence River, draining the Great Lakesprovided a natural waterway and transportation corridor to the heart of the North American continent. Its location at the confluence of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers made it an important staging centre for a fur trade to the west and north as far as the Hudson Bay.

    While the Lachine Rapids on the St. Lawrence just west of the city prohibited some larger vessels from continuing upriver, fur traders were nevertheless able to follow the river to the Great Lakes and, via Lake Michiganon to the largest river system in North America—the Mississippi - Missouri rivers.

    The Lachine Canal National Historic Site preserves the path of the ship canal at the southern end of Montreal Island that was used to bypass the rapids until the seaway was constructed. The city is built around and up Mont Royal Mount Royalwhich rises to feet metres. Map of Montreal c.

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    Climate Montreal has a continental climate, but its proximity to the Great Lakes, in combination with prevailing westerly winds, modifies temperatures for both winter and summer. The prevailing winds and Great Lakes also influence precipitationwhich is relatively even year-round amounting to approximately 41 inches 1, mm annually.

    In winter, though, that precipitation is mainly in the form of snow, and totals often exceed 7 feet about 2. A memorable ice storm in took a number of lives, made travel on roads impossible, and caused major damage to hydroelectric transmission lines and trees.

    City layout The rapid economic growth of Montreal following World War II was accompanied by administrators intent upon grand designs. Expo 67 Man and His World involved massive construction and was located on two islands in the St. City HallMontreal City Hall. While the Place Ville-Marie remained an important landmark, taller buildings were constructed at the end of the s.

    While visitors often note the European flavour of Montreal, downtown Montreal is definitely North American in style. Particularly popular is the Jean-Talon market, which hosts hundreds of vendors in summer months. Offering an abundance of haute-cuisine restaurants and art galleries, Old Montreal is popular with tourists and locals alike.

    Northwest of Mont Royal is Outremont, which merged with Montreal City in and has long been home to the Francophone elite. At the beginning of the 21st century, Outremont was also home to the second largest Hasidic Jewish community in North America after the one in New York City. Also noteworthy is the monumental St. The renaissance-style oratory is easily recognizable with its large white dome surmounted by a cross that marks the highest point in Montreal feet [ metres] above sea level.

    It is a common ritual for pious pilgrims to climb its 99 front stairs on their knees. The growth of Montreal as a manufacturing centre required plenty of labour; in answer, some came from Europe, but most of those who sought work were French Canadians, which eventually led to conflict. The owners and controllers of the Montreal economy were, for the most part, Anglophones; French Canadians, the dominant population from the mids, worked in the factories.

    That divide at the workplace was mirrored in a spatial pattern that developed whereby Boulevard Saint-Laurent St.

    Lawrence Street became a linguistic partition, with Francophones living to the east of it and English speakers to the west. The economic boom following World War II attracted immigrants from Europe, Asia, Africa, and elsewhere in the Americas, transforming Montreal into a diverse multicultural city.

    Despite that increase in immigrant population, French speakers make up about half of the population in the city proper and some two-thirds of the population on the island. Religious affiliations in Montreal generally follow ethnic traditions.

    Roman Catholicism is by far the dominant faith, although active religious practice among Roman Catholics has dramatically diminished since the midth century. Economy Manufacturing Transportation improvements were vital in attracting manufacturing industries to Montreal. With canal construction and advancements, oceangoing vessels were able to reach the city, and, with rail developments, by the s Montreal had become a hub for transcontinental and international movement of goods. As a consequence, manufacturing industries lined the Lachine Canal, producing cotton goods, clothing, textiles, shoes, food, and beverages as well as ships, metal goods, and petroleum products.

    By the midth century the general shift from rail to road transportation of goods was matched by the flight of many industries away from Montreal to suburbs. The restructuring of industry resulted in the loss of manufacturing jobs, but, over time, new often high-tech industries emerged.

    Other industries include food processingbeverage making, engineering, software development, and the manufacture of telecommunications equipment and pharmaceuticals, along with printing and publishing. Indeed, the operational headquarters of the Bank of Montreal relocated in Toronto, thus assisting the latter city in becoming the financial capital of Canada.

    Transportation The series of rapids on the St. Lawrence River west of Montreal long served as a barrier to oceangoing vessels accessing the Great Lakes. However, that impediment was overcome in with the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway, a joint venture of the U. The seaway, along with the introduction of icebreakers in winter, not only provided much-greater access to the centre of the North American continent but also benefited other Quebec port cities, such as Baie Comeau and Quebec city, as ships could now bypass Montreal in the transatlantic trade.

    In response, Montreal invested in container facilities and became a leader in that vital shipping service. The s also saw the proliferation of automobiles and freeways, and in the Metropolitan Boulevard, an east-west throughway that spanned the island, was opened. In the early 21st century Montreal was afflicted by considerable traffic congestion that may have been at least partly a long-term consequence of a cost-driven moratorium on freeway construction from to Montreal is still a railway centre, and, while much of the rail traffic is dedicated to moving goods, there is also regular passenger service to other cities such as Toronto and the Ottawa-Gatineau area.

    Montreal is served by two international airports both under the same authority: Hussein Abdallah Public transportation in Montreal dates from the intermittent use of horse-drawn omnibuses perhaps as early as the late s. During the winter in the s, sleighs replaced the railcar service that was inaugurated in By the entire system had been electrified and the last horsecars withdrawn from service. Electric trolley buses were used from to The system was inaugurated six months before the opening of Expo Each Metro station has a different architectural design and artistic decor.

    Underneath the city, some million square feet 36 million square metres of pedestrian walkways, malls, and shops offer protection from the winter cold and snow.

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    Directly connected to the subway system, the elaborate underground network ranks as the largest of its kind in the world. Aboveground, for three seasons of the year, the public bicycle share system, BIXI an amalgam of the words bicycle and taxiallows riders to rent a bike and drop it off at a docking station near their destination.

    Information on all facets of K state education programs with links to a variety of resources on the Internet. Los Angeles County Board of Education. Use their PowerSearch engine to find exactly what you're looking for. Los Angeles Unified School District. School district resources which include classroom management tips, success strategies, and helpful hints.

    State Departments of Education. This site provides links to the 50 state departments of education in the United States. Contains a Teacher's Guide to resources offered by the Department as well as programs and services, additional publications and products, news releases, and links to other sites of interest to teachers. You can also search the Department's document collection by entering key words.

    There are sections for age groups K-2, and which feature the U. Constitution, how laws are made, the branches of government, and citizenship. There is a separate section for parents and educators.

    Also included are games and activities, e-mail for kids to ask questions and links to related sites. Among its sections are: Just select the email address of your Senator or Representative and you can write your lawmaker a letter.

    Embassies and consulates with a Web presence in the U. Also provides links to related resources. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Overview, general information, crime statistics and current FBI investigations. In addition to U.

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    This site was developed and is maintained by the Federal Consumer Information Center. It provides elementary and secondary teachers links to Federal kids' sites along with kids' sites from other organizations all grouped by subject.

    Provides information about major constitutional cases heard and decided by the Supreme Court of the United States. You can listen to recordings of the Court's proceedings via RealAudio. StateSearch is a service of the National Association of State Information Resource Executives and is designed to serve as a topical clearinghouse to state government information on the Internet.

    The CyberSchoolBus will take you to all the UN sites you'll want for your classroom including a virtual tour of the UN's premises so that students can browse through its history.

    United Nations Home Page. Overview, news, and information resources dealing with the United Nations. Includes UN photos which you can reproduce for classroom use. Includes data maps, interactive software to view profiles of states and countries, and economic information. You can Email your questions and comments to their "Ask the Experts" page, search the census bureau data base, and also subscribe to a mailing list.

    Department of the Treasury. Everything you wanted to know about our nation's currency. Includes a history of paper money and how new bills are created. Government Agencies Home Pages for Kids. The site includes links to these Kids' Homes Pages: House of Representatives Home Page. House of Representatives' World Wide Web service provides public access to legislative information as well as information about Members, Committees, and Organizations of the House.

    Provides links to other U. Mint The site includes information about the 50 states coin program, a history of coin denominations, facts about the Mint, and bullion and coin production. Senate World Wide Web Server. Provides information about the members of the Senate, Senate Committees, and Senate leadership and support offices.

    Also includes general background information about U. Senate legislative procedures, Senate facilities in the Capitol Building, and the history of the Senate. Recent decisions of the U. Supreme Court are indexed by topic or they can be retrieved through a key word search. Also includes selected pre decisions, a gallery of the justices, and information on how to subscribe via email to U.

    Supreme Court decisions in bulletin format written hours after their release. State Department Travel Advisories. Information on current travel advisories but in addition contains factsheets for each country. The site, provided by a U. Mudd and the Lincoln assassination, the postmortem career of John Wilkes Booth and interesting facts about Lincoln's assassination. Abraham Lincoln Research Site. A former American History teacher shares many facts about President Lincoln presented in an interesting way suitable for grades A Deeper Shade of History Black History At this site, you can find interesting facts for this particular week in Black History, search for topics in their database, or search the calendar for facts about a particular month or year.

    Aesop's Fables Online Exhibit. Teachers will find over of the fables, some of which offer RealAudio encoding. A great way to enrich a unit on Ancient Greece at the middle school level. AFI's Years Movies. American Film Institute announces its list of the greatest American films. Teachers and students can browse the resources by collection, country, subject, through an interactive map of the continent or by keywords or multiple fields. Links to museums, newspapers, events and people in black history, as well as numerous related links that celebrate the African-American experience.

    Provides detailed information for each African country including flags, maps, and links to other online resources. This site explores African-American history from the beginning of the slave trade, through the Civil Rights movement, to the present. Resources include traditional folk tales, commentary and speeches, the text of 26 related books, historical documents, brief biographies, synopses of key historical events, trivia games and a collection of related links.

    Pictures and text about the life of Alexander the Great with links to other resources. Written by students at the Gotha Middle School in Windermere, Florida, the site contains an extensive list of biographies of important figures in American history, from the Founding Fathers to modern rocker Kurt Cobain. Students can follow the Civil War timeline, view state battle maps, read about women in the war, or get details on battles from the alphabetical listing or battle statistics pages.

    Students interested in communicating with others can participate in chats or post messages at the message board. The site includes texts of the Gettysburg Address and the Emancipation Proclamation. American Civil War Home Page. General resources, graphic images, letters, diaries, and links to other reference sites.

    It includes a Teacher's Guide and Resources. The site features retellings of American folktales, Native American myths and legends, tall tales, weather folklore and ghost stories from the 50 United States. Mainly drawn from the special collections of the Library of Congress, the site has direct links to photographic, recorded sounds, manuscript and early motion picture collections.

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    American Memory Learning Page. Select from among these headings: Events, People, Places, Time, and Topics for relevant resources in teaching social studies. American Presidency Grolier Online. Grolier Online presents an exclusive history of presidents, the presidency, politics and related subjects. The site includes encyclopedias, sound bytes, flip cards to trade and presidential quizzes. American Presidential Election Election Results from The site, a Britannica feature, provides election results; biographies of the U.

    Presidents including speeches, writings, and audio recordings; biographies of the Vice Presidents; memorobilia; and Presidential internet links. American Revolution Navigation Tools. The site, from the American History Archive Project, includes a key word search to topics of interest, a subject search tool, a time line with links to relevant resources, a clickable map of American Revolutionary War battles and samples of student projects.

    American Thanksgiving on the Internet. Thanksgiving links for teachers, kids and families. Take a virtual tour, view colonial pictures, complete a word search puzzle, sing a song, read a poem, print out a lesson plan, all around the theme of American Thanksgiving.

    American Treasures of the Library of Congress. This site categorizes as "treasures" some of the more than million items in the Library of Congress.

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    These include Thomas Jefferson's handwritten draft of the Declaration of Independence, Jelly Roll Morton's early compositions, Maya Lin's original drawing for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, the earliest known baseball cards, and the first motion picture deposited for copyright.

    The site focuses on the "old West" and includes information on cowboys, Native Americans, pioneers and pioneer towns, explorers and more. The Library of Congress presents this site which includes these topics: Pictures of ancient Egyptian rulers in mummified form along with brief biographies.

    A meta index of links to all kinds of sites dealing with the ancient world. The articles, photographs, virtual tours and primary source materials found at this site offer the teacher rich resources to teach the contributions of the peoples of Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to world history. The Richest Man in the World. The site includes information about the life and times of Anne Frank. Anthropology on the Internet for K The Smithsonian Institution has prepared an annotated listing of hot links to selected sites with information about the field of anthropology for teachers and young people.

    The sites are grouped under 11 different sections including careers. Architecture Through the Ages. Middle school students can learn about the building and sometimes the culture of a half dozen early civilizations including Egyptian, Greek, and Aztec. Historic documents from 18th century America which include original newspapers, maps and writings. The Landscape of Asian America. Appropriate for senior high school students, this is a source for the historical, political, social, economic, and cultural elements and issues that make up today's diverse Asian American community.

    Atlapedia Online provides teachers and students in elementary and secondary schools with full color physical and political maps as well as key facts and statistics on countries of the world. Included are data for geography, climate, people, religion, language, history, and economy. Books which have been objects of censorship or censorship attempts ranging from Ulysses to Little Red Riding Hood. Exploring Questions of Identity. An educational site about this famous battle and how Native Americans and settlers expressed the event through their art.

    It includes The Battle of Little Big Horn, painted by the Lakota warrior Kicking Bearresource links, and discussion questions for elementary, middle school and high school students. Beginner's Guide to the Balkans. The site has an interactive map, an event timeline, biographies of major players in the crisis, discussion about the issues of peace and genocide, public response on the subject, and answers to users questions.

    Biography Over 20, of the greatest names, past and present, at your fingertips. Click on a letter, or enter a name to discover who they were, what they did, and why. Gale Research, publisher of many library reference resources, provides this site in celebration of Black History Month. It features a biography section, a timeline, daily quizzes, and educational activities.

    Our History, Our People. Developed by Canada's Digital Collections, and suitable for high school level students, the site tells the story of a group of freed and escaped slaves, the black loyalists, who fought for England in the American Revolution. The major areas which make up the site are: Hundreds of links to African-American history and culture. California Council for the Social Studies. Information and links to other social studies sites of interest to teachers. Includes information and pictures gathered by fourth graders on a bicycle trip to the California Missions.

    Celebrating Women's History Month. Gale Research celebrates women's history with this section of pages of valuable information, including biographies of leading women throughout history, hyperlinks to other WWW sites focusing on women, a women's history quiz, a timeline of key events, and six student activities. Suitable for grades Center for Civic Education. The site provides links to a variety of relevant resources including curriculum materials and sample lesson plans.

    The site includes sound clips, pictures, documents and videos of the Mexican-American labor leader. Child Labor in America Hine depicting child labor in a variety of contexts including the mill, newsies, miners, the factory, seafood workers, fruit pickers, and others.

    The site contains useful information about China's culture and history suitable for students in grades Also featured are a cooking area and a Kids Only section. Your class can look for a China Penpal - under "Interactive" on the home page. Includes a calendar of events, links to curriculum projects, and historic photographs.

    Jay D'Ambrosio, middle school teacher, has produced stories based on actual people, places, and events of the ancient past. These stories are designed to be read by the teacher to the entire classroom and allow students to make choices and use their imaginations in an interactive way in order to experience life in ancient times. Sample stories are provided at the site accompanied by information on how to order the full series. History timelines from BC, to Many events from the timelines are hyperlinked.

    All kinds of data about countries in the world. Information about every country and territory in the world. Includes a searchable Index of Information you can use by entering a keyword. Civil War Home Page. The site includes letters and diaries, battles, a photo gallery, people, reenacting associations, and collectables.

    The site contains1, selected civil war photographs from the Library of Congress collection. Most of the images were made under the supervision of Mathew B. Brady, and include scenes of military personnel, preparations for battle, and battle after-effects. Civil War Poetry and Music. Features poems and songs written during and after the war. Links to other civil war sites are provided. The site, developed by Keith A. Pickering, examines the history, navigation, and landfall of Christopher Columbus.

    It also contains a timeline, details about the four voyages, a bibliography, and links to other relevant resources. The Constitutional Rights Foundation CRF is a non-profit, non-partisan, community-based organization dedicated to educating America's young people about the importance of civic participation in a democratic society.

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    They provide technical assistance and training to teachers, coordinate civic participation projects in schools and communities, organize student conferences and competitions, develop publications, and present students with Web Lessons.

    Includes an American Historical Atlas and links to map collections online. Cybrary of the Holocaust. A place where you can share in the teaching and learning of the Holocaust. Journey through the Holocaust via an interactive map, take a virtual tour of Auschwitz, read diaries and interviews as background to teaching about this tragic historical event.

    Himalayas, Where Earth Meets Sky. The site provides middle and high school students with an enormous amount of information about the Himalayas. More than photographs, audio files, and java applets enhance the textual information presented. The Digital Classroom provides materials from the National Archives and methods for teaching with primary sources. Includes activities and publications. This site, suitable for senior high school students, features links to information on discoverers and explorers, from prehistoric man through modern day.

    Dismuke's Virtual Talking Machine Dismuke's Virtual Talking Machin, for secondary level students, presents the recordings of the turn of the century and the 's and 30's transcribed into streaming Real Audio from the original 78 rpm discs. They can download some of the Real Audio files on the site to their hard drive so that they can listen to them again without being connected to the Internet. Seuss Went to War: A Catalog of Political Cartoons by Dr. Middle and high school students can see World War II through these cartoons.

    Topics include politics, battles, and life in the U. Over 1, pages of material intended to Eradicate Conflict by increasing cultural awareness. The site features anthems, flags, maps, and the nations of the world. A collection of the best education sites on the Web.

    An annotated list of Internet sites with K educational standards and curriculum frameworks documents. The listings are by social studies organization and by state. EducStock Stock Market Educator. Edustock is an educational web page designed to teach young and old alike, what the stock market is, and how it can work for them.

    It includes tutorials on the stock market and how to pick good stocks. It also provides information on a select group of companies to help you start your research into what stock is going to make your fortune. Last of all, it provides the only free realtime Stock market simulation on the World Wide Web. At this site, Torstar Eleectronic Publishing Ltd. Ellis Island's Wall of Honor. Ellis Island served as a gateway to America for more than 12 million immigrants before it was closed in You can search to see if your family name is inscribed on the American Immigrant Wall of Honor.

    Exploring Ancient World Cultures. The cultures explored are: Presented by Ibis Communications, EyeWitness recounts history through the words of those who lived it. It uses diaries, interviews, newspaper reports and other first-hand sources to illuminate some of history's great and some of its more mundane events. It explores art, music, cinema, prose, and poetry and also contains a reference section that includes a glossary, bibliography, lesson plans, and the Cyrillic alphabet FactFinder Kids' Corner.

    Census Bureau, is a site in which elementary and middle school students can learn about the U. Census, get facts about their state, and have fun with quiz questions. Federal Resources for Educational Excellence. Hundreds of teaching and learning resources from more than 30 federal agencies.

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    Search the resources or see them listed by subject including Social Studies. Fifty States of the U. Their Capital Cities and Information Links. Ray Weber has provided teachers and students with a resource for finding facts about the fifty states which make up the United States.

    States are listed in alphabetical order. Fifty Years from Trinity. Created by the Seattle Times, the site examines the impact of the atomic age fifty years after the invention of nuclear weapons.

    It includes the full text of the original page newspaper section, additional unpublished supplementary materials, photographs, sounds, a study guide, interactive activities and links to relevant Internet resources. The site provides short descriptions of more than 30 Native American tribes, which in turn link to a detailed essay on each.

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    Exploring An Ancient Market Place. The site, prepared for Think Quest by three students from the Netherlands, includes these topics: Suitable for middle and high school levels. Founding Fathers Info Guide. Secondary school teachers and students will find an online version of the complete Federalist Papers at this site, along with links to such documents as the U.

    Bill of Rights and Constitution. Also included are photo galleries, a history of the American flag, quotations from the founding fathers, and lists of suggested books for further study. The site provides an in-depth analysis of the Cuban Missile Crisis suitable for senior high school students.

    Students can elect to go to the "Crisis Center" for a short summary of the events, the "Briefing Room" to hear an audio telling of the crisis, the "Recon Room" for background information on the major figures in the crisis, and the "Debriefing Room" to take a quiz on the information at the site. Friends and Flags is a multi-cultural learning project that combines learning across the curriculum, technology and the humanitarian concept of cultural understanding. The project is geared to students from all countries in grades From Jesus to Christ: The site is a complement to the April,PBS television series which contains a wealth of information about the contemporary world of Jesus.

    Included are interviews with religious and historical scholars, maps, a chronology, a primary source collection and audio segments.

    Contains links to original sources or articles prepared by a number of contributors. Read the text sequentially, or just go off on your own. Teachers and students can visit any culture in the world from the "International Links" area in the site's main page. Additional features are a quiz entitled "How culturally aware are you?

    Reports from Peace Corps volunteers in the field will be added soon. Geography World, created by Brad Bowerman, has links to a variety of topics including maps, games and quizzes that teachers could easily incorporate into an interactive lesson plan.

    Poems, prose, paintings, and a free image of our first president for kids to color. Students can write three words that they think describe George Washington, submit them, and see what others wrote. Geo Teacher is designed to be a research tool and to provide geography links and other resources for high school students, parents, and teachers. It was designed by R.

    Williams of the Newport News Va. Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History offers high school teachers and students a rich variety of resources. These include primary sources on slavery, Mexican American and Native American history, an online textbook providing an interactive, multimedia history of the United States from the Revolution to the present, audio and visual materials, and exhibitions.

    Global Access to Educational Sources G. This site is an online library for Middle School Students. It contains resource lists which are intended to be of value to those who do not have the time to do a full search. Middle and secondary students and teachers interested in inventions and inventors will find a wealth of information here. The History Channel features the great speeches that changed the world.

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    Every day, The History Channel Time Machine takes you to a different turning point in history -- and lets you listen in. These speeches have been drawn from the most famous broadcasts and recordings of the Twentieth Century.

    To hear these sounds from the past, you'll need the RealAudio Plug-in. The site includes the story of World War II, biographies and articles, air combat films to download, photographs, a World War II history test, and links to other resources.

    Includes a Gulf War chronology, tapes and transcripts, weapons and technology information, maps, an oral history and war stories. An archive of sound clips from the past. Middle and high school students can hear some of the voices of American History including Franklin D.

    Teachers and students can search and browse the offerings of the site which is presented by the National Endowment for the Humanities in partnership with Michigan State University.