United States[ edit ] Private security guards have outnumbered police officers since the s, predating the heightened concern about security brought on by the September 11,attacks. The more than 1 million contract security officers, and an equal number of guards estimated to work directly for U.
Security guards have the same powers of arrest as a private citizen, called a "private person" arrest, "any person" arrest, or " citizen's arrest ".
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If weapons are carried, additional permits and training are usually required. Armed security personnel are generally employed to protect sensitive sites such as government and military installations, armored money transports, casinos, banks and other financial institutions, and nuclear power plants.
However, armed security is quickly becoming a standard for vehicle patrol officers and on many other non-government sites. In some states, companies are developing technology to enhance private security.
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Using behavior analysis, computers can detect threats more quickly with fewer errors in judgement. Using specific algorithms, a computer can now detect aggressive and defensive body language, which triggers an alert to security or proper authorities depending on the event.
These systems can also track slips and falls, theft and other events commonly experienced in corporate America. Pastor addresses substantive legal and public policy issues which directly or indirectly relate to the provision of security services.
These can be demonstrated by the logic of alternative or supplemental service providers. The use of private police has particular appeal because property or business owners can directly contract for public safety services, thereby providing welcome relief for municipal budgets.
Finally, private police functions can be flexible, depending upon the financial, organizational, political, and circumstances of the client. Applicants must be at least 18 years old, undergo a criminal history background check through the California Department of Justice DOJ and the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBIand complete a hour course of required training. This required training is broken down into smaller training sections and time-lines.
The first is 8 hours of BSIS-designed instruction on powers to arrest and weapons. Then, within 30 days of getting the individual officers license, they must receive 16 hours of training on various mandatory and elective courses.
Finally, within 6 months of getting their license, they must receive an additional 16 hours of training on various mandatory and elective courses. California security officers are also required to complete 8 hours of annual training on security-related topics, in addition to the initial 40 hours of training.
The training and exam may be administered by any private patrol operator or by any of a large number of certified training facilities. This training can be in the classroom or online. This law, commonly referred to as SORA, is the state's effort to increase the quality of security personnel. Security personnel employed by other types of businesses do not require the SORA certification card.
However, those employed by the Atlantic City casinos are required to have the state issued "Casino Employee Registration" card. New Mexico—As of all security guards must undergo FBI background checks and a certified training program. Guards who carry firearms must also undergo additional training with a firearm through an approved firearms instructor and pass a psychological exam. The purpose of the Private Protective Services Board is to administer the licensing, education and training requirements for persons, firms, associations and corporations engaged in private protective services within North Carolina.
The board is totally fee funded and is staffed by departmental employees directed on a daily basis by the Director, who is appointed by the Attorney General. There are two classifications for an officer: While an unarmed officer is required to take a hour class of training and instruction to become certified, an armed officer must take additional hours of classroom training as well as qualify on a gun range with the firearm which will be carried on duty. To be licensed as an unarmed officer an individual must be at least 18 years of age and undergo 40 hours of classroom training and pass criminal history checks.
Armed guards must be 21 years of age, have another 40 hours of classroom training, qualify with their firearm and pass a psychological evaluation. However, anyone who carried a firearm or other "lethal weapon" in the course and scope of their employment must be trained as a "Certified Agent" and successfully complete a hour training course including shooting range time in order to be certified to carry weapons while on duty under the Lethal Weapons Training Act commonly referred to as Act certification.
Certification involves completing a medical physical exam, a psychological examination, classroom training and qualifying on a pistol range, with firing of 50 rounds of ammo larger than a. Agents are also required to qualify on a shotgun.
The certification is good for five years at which time an eight-hour refresher course must be taken or the certification is revoked. Training for unarmed officers is 8 hours, an additional 8 hours is required for a security weapons permit or a concealed security weapons permit. Additional hours are required to be documented for officers issuing public or private tickets as well as officers who will be using batons, pepper spray or tasers.
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A museum guard in Every two years the card must be renewed, by completing an in-service with a certified instructor. To be certified as an armed security officer one must complete an additional 24 hours of firearms training, 8 hours of training in conducting a lawful arrest, and qualification with the type and caliber of weapon they intend to carry.
Firearms endorsements must be renewed annually by completing an in-service and passing a firearms qualification. Certified armed security officers are authorized under state code to arrest  for any offense committed in their presence while they are on duty at the location they are hired to protect.
Unarmed officers have no arrest powers. They also are granted the authority by the state law to issue summons to appear in court  for felonies and misdemeanors. Virginia also allows security officers to attend additional 40 hours of training to become certified as Conservators of the Peace Special Police for the company employing them.
This appointment is performed by a Circuit Court Judge, wherein the officer is actually sworn in and has the powers of a police officer on property they are working, as well as the lawful duty to act upon witnessing any felony and the ability to pursue fleeing felons. Such sworn officers are also permitted the use of sirens and red lights.
History[ edit ] Match. It was started as a proof-of-concept for Electric Classifieds  which aimed to provide classified advertising systems for newspapers.
Early on, Kremen was assisted by Peng T. Ong, who helped in the design of the initial system, and Simon Glinsky, who helped in the development of one of the first Internet business plans for Match. The initial business scope developed by this team included a subscription model, now common among personals services, and inclusion of diverse communities with high first trial and market leaders status, including women, technology professionals, and the gay and lesbian communities.
Fran Maier joined in late to lead the Match.
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It was first profiled in Wired magazine in After troubles with venture capitalists over his insistence that the company serve profitable alternative market segments including the LGBT market, Gary Kremen left Match.
A year later Match. In lateMatch. In SeptemberMatch. Love AOL was no longer free, after it became Match. Blatt served as the CEO of Match. At the time, more than 42 million singles globally had registered with Match. It was announced in February that Match. The two companies formed a partnership to combine ParPerfieto in Brazil with extended Match.