Clarke appears as a man on a park bench outside the White House which is out-of-frame in the pan-and-scan version, but visible in the letterboxed and widescreen versions. In addition, a Time magazine cover about the American—Soviet tensions is briefly shown, in which the President of the United States is portrayed by Clarke and the Soviet Premier by the writer, producer and director, Stanley Kubrick.
Production[ edit ] Development and filming[ edit ] When Clarke published his novel Odyssey Two inhe telephoned Stanley Kubrick, and jokingly said, "Your job is to stop anybody [from] making it [into a movie] so I won't be bothered.
However, Peter Hyams was interested and contacted both Clarke and Kubrick for their blessings: I had a long conversation with Stanley and told him what was going on.
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If it met with his approval, I would do the film; and if it didn't, I wouldn't. I certainly would not have thought of doing the film if I had not gotten the blessing of Kubrick. He's one of my idols; simply one of the greatest talents that's ever walked the Earth. He more or less said, 'Sure.
Just go do your own movie. The two would discuss the planning and production of the film on an almost daily basis using this method, and their informal, often humorous correspondence was published in as The Odyssey File.
As it focuses on the screenwriting and pre-production process, the book terminates on February 7, just before the movie is about to start filming, though it does include 16 pages of behind-the-scenes photographs from the film. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message The special effects for were filmed on 65mm film the live action scenes were filmed on 35mm and, due to the differences in film size and ratio, there is a noticeable "cut off" area at the side of the picture during the space scenes when the film is viewed in widescreen.
The effects were produced by the Entertainment Effects Group EEGthe special effects house created by Douglas Trumbullwho contributed to the effects on Early in the production ofHyams had learned that all of the original large spacecraft models from "", including the original foot model of the Discovery One, had been destroyed following the filming, as ordered by Kubrick, as had all of the original model-makers' designs for building the Discovery One.
Consequently, the model-makers at EEG had to use frame-by-frame enlargements from a 70mm copy of "" to recreate the original large Discovery One model. The Leonov spacecraft, as well as several of its interior crew areas and other elements of the spacecraft's advanced technology, were designed by the noted conceptual artist Syd Mead.
Although computer-generated imagery or CGI was still in an early phase of development inthe special effects team of used CGI to create the dynamic-looking cloudy atmosphere of the planet Jupiter, as well as the swarm of monoliths that engulf the planet and turn it into a Sun for the planet Europa. Digital Productions would use data supplied by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to create the turbulent Jovian atmosphere. This was one of the first instances of what the studio would later refer to as "Digital Scene Simulation", a concept they would take to the next level with The Last Starfighter.
In order to maintain the realism of the lighting in outer space, in which light would usually come from a single light source in this case, the SunEdlund and Hyams decided that blue-screen photography would not be used for shooting the space scenes. The models were filmed as they would appear in space, then a white background was placed behind the model and the first pass was repeated. This isolated the model's outlines so that proper traveling mattes could be made.
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All of this processing doubled the amount of time that it took to film these sequences, due to the additional motion-control pass that was needed to generate the matte.
This process also eliminated the problem of "blue spill", which is the main disadvantage of blue-screen photography. Ramaphosa was arrested in Lebowaon the charge of organising or planning to take part in a meeting in Namakgale which had been banned by the local magistrate. He delivered a keynote address at Cosatu's launch rally in Durban in December Under his leadership, union membership grew from 6, in toingiving it control of nearly half of the total black workforce in the South African mining industry.
In DecemberRamaphosa and other prominent members of the Soweto community met Soweto's Mayor to discuss the rent boycott crisis. Ramaphosa served as chairman of the National Reception committee, which co-ordinated arrangements for the release of Nelson Mandela and subsequent welcome rallies within South Africa, and also became a member of the international Mandela Reception Committee.
Following the first fully democratic elections inRamaphosa became a member of parliament; he was elected the chairperson of its Constitutional Assembly on 24 May and played a central role in the government of national unity.
After he lost the race to become President of South Africa to Thabo Mbekihe resigned from his political positions in January and moved to the private sector, where he became a director of New Africa Investments Limited.
The media continually speculated on Ramaphosa joining the race for the presidency of the ANC inbefore the South African presidential election.
On 2 SeptemberThe Sunday Times reported that Ramaphosa was in the election race, but by that evening he had released a statement once again holding back on any commitment.
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I know Cyril is very good at business, but I really wish he would put all his money in a trust and step up for a higher and more senior position". Although it was unknown whether or not Ramaphosa will run for President of the ANC, he attempted to quieten the speculation by responding to Hanekom's comment by stating "You can't read anything [into what he said].
He officially became a candidate for the Deputy Presidency on 17 December and entered the race with the strong backing of the Zuma camp. Cyril Ramaphosa received 3, votes, while Mathews Phosa received votes and Tokyo Sexwale received votes. The affairs of the national executive in Parliament; the programming of parliamentary business initiated by the national executive, within the time allocated for that purpose and ensuring that Cabinet members attend to their parliamentary responsibilities.
The visit to Singapore provided the South African delegation, led by Ramaphosa with an opportunity to learn from the Singapore model of economic success and the role of state-owned enterprises and economic growth and national developmental objectives of the country. Bilateral trade has grown significantly with Singapore being South Africa's second-largest trading partner in the ASEAN region; by bilateral trade amounted to R Corruption[ edit ] In November while speaking at the Limpopo Provincial Summit, Ramaphosa said that corruption was the root to the country's ailing economy.
He stated that the South African Government and the South African business community had to find a way to combat corruption, although he didn't mention it by name. He suggested the summit should look at addressing quality and depth of leaders within the public and private sectors by adhering to the National Development Plan.
Government bonds also increased in strength with the lead in benchmark instrument due in down 6. Ramaphosa emphasised the need to grow the economy of South AfricaTourism, youth employment as well as reducing the size of the Cabinet. In this speech, Ramaphosa also focused on the importance of keeping Mandela's legacy alive. On 26 FebruaryRamaphosa, who had inherited Jacob Zuma 's cabinet, reshuffled cabinet for the first time removing many of the cabinet members who had been controversial through the Zuma era and who had close links to the Gupta family.
Domestic policy[ edit ] Since Ramaphosa became president he has made land reform and the economy his main priorities, as well as dealing with the outbreak of listeriosis which has claimed the lives of over since the start of In FebruarySouth Africa's parliament voted to begin amending the "property clause" in the constitution to allow the expropriation of land without compensation. Initiatives[ edit ] Ramaphosa launched the Youth Employment Service YES initiative as a means to employ one million youth and giving them more experience in the working field, with the South African Government even introducing the Employment Tax Incentivewhich would reduce employer's costs when hiring youth.