Techniques and methods Whether a painting reached completion by careful stages or was executed directly by a hit-or-miss alla prima method in which pigments are laid on in a single application was once largely determined by the ideals and established techniques of its cultural tradition.
More recently, the artist has decided the technique and working method best suited to his aims and temperament. Siting problems peculiar to mural painting, such as spectator eye level and the scale, style, and function of a building interior, had first to be solved in preparatory drawings and sometimes with the use of wax figurines or scale models of the interior.
Some modern painters prefer to outline the enlargement of a sketch projected directly onto the support by epidiascope a projector for images of both opaque and transparent objects. The inherent properties of its medium or the atmospheric conditions of its site may themselves preserve a painting.
The wax solvent binder of encaustic paintings see below both retains the intensity and tonality of the original colours and protects the surface from damp. It has, however, been customary to varnish oil paintings, both to protect the surface against damage by dirt and handling and to restore the tonality lost when some darker pigments dry out into a higher key. Glass began to replace varnish toward the end of the 19th century, when painters wished to retain the fresh, luminous finish of pigments applied directly to a pure white ground.
The air-conditioning and temperature-control systems of modern museums make both varnishing and glazing unnecessary, except for older and more fragile exhibits. With the introduction of portable easel pictures, heavy frames not only provided some protection against theft and damage but were considered an aesthetic enhancement to a painting, and frame making became a specialized craft. Gilded gesso moldings consisting of plaster of paris and sizing that forms the surface for low relief in extravagant swags of fruit and flowers certainly seem almost an extension of the restless, exuberant design of a Baroque or Rococo painting.
A substantial frame also provided a proscenium in a theatrethe area between the orchestra and the curtain in which the picture was isolated from its immediate surroundings, thus adding to the window view illusion intended by the artist. In contemporary Minimal paintings, no effects of spatial illusionism are intended; and, in order to emphasize the physical shape of the support itself and to stress its flatness, these abstract, geometrical designs are displayed without frames or are merely edged with thin protective strips of wood or metal.
Renaissance cassone, painted and gilded wood, Florence, 15th century; in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. Courtesy of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London; photograph, John Webb Mediums By technical definition, mediums are the liquids added to paints to bind them and make them workable.
They are discussed here, however, in the wider meaning of all the various paints, tools, supports, surfaces, and techniques employed by painters. The basis of all paints is variously coloured pigmentground to a fine powder. The different expressive capacities and characteristic final surface texture of each medium are determined by the vehicle with which it is bound and thinned, the nature and surface preparation of the support, and the tools and technique with which it is handled.
Pigments are derived from various natural and artificial sources.
The oldest and most permanent pigments are the blacks, prepared from bone and charcoal, and the clay earths, such as raw umber and raw sienna, which can be changed by heating into darker, warmer browns. In early periods of painting, readily available pigments were few. Certain intense hues were obtainable only from the rarer minerals, such as cinnabar orange-red vermilionlapis lazuli violet-blue ultramarineand malachite green. These were expensive and therefore reserved for focal accents and important symbolic features in the design.
The opening of trade routes and the manufacture of synthetic substitutes gradually extended the range of colours available to painters. The ancient medium was in constant use in most world culturesuntil in Europe it was gradually superseded by oil paints during the Renaissance.
Tempera was the mural medium in the ancient dynasties of EgyptBabyloniaMycenean Greeceand China and was used to decorate the early Christian catacombs. It was employed on a variety of supports, from the stone stelae or commemorative pillarsmummy cases, and papyrus rolls of ancient Egypt to the wood panels of Byzantine icons and altarpieces and the vellum leaves of medieval illuminated manuscripts.
Painting from the tomb of Nebamun at ThebesBanquet scene with musicians, tempera painting on gesso from the tomb of Nebamun at Thebes, 18th dynasty c. Such painting was distinguished from fresco paintingthe colours for which contained no binder.
Eventually, after the rise of oil paintingthe word gained its present meaning.
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The standard tempera vehicle is a natural emulsion, egg yolkthinned with water. Variants of this vehicle have been developed to widen its use. Among the man-made emulsions are those prepared with whole egg and linseed oil, with gum, and with wax.
Board of Trustees of the National Museums and Galleries in Merseyside Walker Art Gallery Liverpool The special ground for tempera painting is a rigid wood or wallboard panel coated with several thin layers of gessoa white, smooth, fully absorbent preparation made of burnt gypsum or chalkplaster of Parisor whiting and hide or parchment glue.
A few minutes after application, tempera paint is sufficiently resistant to water to allow overpainting with more colour. Thin, transparent layers of paint produce a clear, luminous effect, and the colour tones of successive brushstrokes blend optically. Modern tempera paintings are sometimes varnished or overpainted with thin, transparent oil glazes to produce full, deep-toned results, or they are left unglazed for blond, or light, effects.
Mid-to-late 20th-century artists such as Andy WarholMark Rothkoand David Hockney might have used tempera had it not been replaced mid-century by acrylic paints. The cave paintings are thought to date from about 20,—15, bce. Their pigments probably have been preserved by a natural sinter process of rainwater seeping through the limestone rocks to produce saturated bicarbonate. The colours were rubbed across rock walls and ceilings with sharpened solid lumps of the natural earths yellow, red, and brown ochre.
Outlines were drawn with black sticks of wood charcoal. The discovery of mixing dishes suggests that liquid pigment mixed with fat was also used and smeared with the hand. The subtle tonal gradations of colour on animals painted in the Altamira and Lascaux caves appear to have been dabbed in two stages with fur pads, natural variations on the rock surface being exploited to assist in creating effects of volume.
Feathers and frayed twigs may have been used in painting manes and tails. Cave painting of a bull and a horse; in Lascaux Grotto, near Montignac, France.
Ziolo, Paris These were not composite designs but separate scenes and individual studies that, like graffiti drawings, were added at different times, often one on top of another, by various artists. Paintings from approximately 18, to 11, years ago, during the Magdalenian periodexhibit astonishing powers of accurate observation and ability to represent movement. Women, warriors, horses, bison, bulls, boars, and ibex are depicted in scenes of ritual ceremony, battle, and hunting.
Among the earliest images are imprinted and stencilled hands. Fresco secco In the fresco secco, or lime-painting, method, the plastered surface of a wall is soaked with slaked lime. Lime-resistant pigments are applied swiftly before the plaster sets.
Secco colours dry lighter than their tone at the time of application, producing the pale, matte, chalky quality of a distempered wall.
The stone or brick wall is first prepared with a brown trullisatio scratch coat, or rough-cast plaster layer. This is then covered by the arricciato coat, on which the linear design of the preparatory cartoon is pounced or engraved by impressing the outlines into the moist, soft plaster with a bone or metal stylus.
These lines were usually overworked in reddish sinopia pigment. A thin layer of fine plaster is then evenly spread, allowing the linear design to show through.
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Before this final intonaco ground sets, pigments thinned with water or slaked lime are applied rapidly with calf-hair and hog-bristle brushes; depth of colour is achieved by a succession of quick-drying glazes. Being prepared with slaked lime, the plaster becomes saturated with an aqueous solution of hydrate of lime, which takes up carbonic acid from the air as it soaks into the paint.
Carbonate of lime is produced and acts as a permanent pigment binder. When dry, these are matte and lighter in tone.
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Colours are restricted to the range of lime-resistant earth pigments. Mineral colours such as blue, affected by lime, are applied over earth pigment when the plaster is dry.
Plato and Aristotle surrounded by philosophers, detail from School of Athens, fresco by Raphael, —11; in the Stanza della Segnatura in the Vatican. Alterations must be made by immediate washing or scraping; minor retouching to set plaster is possible with casein or egg temperabut major corrections necessitate breaking away the intonaco and replastering.
The swift execution demanded stimulates bold designs in broad masses of colour with a calligraphic vitality of brush marks.
Other notable examples from the Italian Renaissance can be seen in Florence: A rough plaster undercoat is followed by thin plaster layers, each stained with a different lime-fast colour.
These coats are covered by a fine-grain mortar finishing surface. The plaster is then engraved with knives and gouges at different levels to reveal the various coloured layers beneath.
The sintered-lime process binds the colours. The surface of modern sgraffito frescoes is often enriched with textures made by impressing nails and machine parts, combined with mosaics of stone, glassplastic, and metal tesserae. Miaow Miaow Sgraffito has been a traditional folk art in Europe since the Middle Ages and was practiced as a fine art in 13th-century Germany.
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It was revived in updated and modified ways by 20th-century artists such as Max Ernst and Jean Dubuffet. Oil Oil paints are made by mixing dry pigment powder with refined linseed oil to a paste, which is then milled in order to disperse the pigment particles throughout the oil vehicle.
According to the 1st-century Roman scholar Pliny the Elderwhose writings the Flemish painters Hubert and Jan van Eyck are thought to have studied, the Romans used oil colours for shield painting. The earliest use of oil as a fine-art medium is generally attributed to 15th-century European painters, such as Giovanni Bellini and the van Eyckswho glazed oil colour over a glue-tempera underpainting. It is also thought probable, however, that medieval manuscript illuminators had been using oil glazes in order to achieve greater depth of colour and more subtle tonal transitions than their tempera medium allowed.
Oils have been used on linenburlap, cotton, wood, hiderock, stone, concretepapercardboard, aluminumcopperplywood, and processed boards, such as masonite, pressed wood, and hardboard.
The surface of rigid panels is traditionally prepared with gesso and that of canvas with one or more coats of white acrylic resin emulsion or with a coat of animal glue followed by thin layers of white-lead oil primer. Oil paints can be applied undiluted to these prepared surfaces or can be used thinned with pure gum turpentine or its substitute, white mineral spirit. The colours are slow drying; the safest dryer to speed the process is cobalt siccative. Library and Archives Canada An oil glaze is a transparent wash of pigment, traditionally thinned with an oleoresin or with stand oil a concentrate of linseed oil.
Glazes can be used to create deep, glowing shadows and to bring contrasted colours into closer harmony beneath a unifying tinted film. Scumbling is the technique of scrubbing an undiluted, opaque, and generally pale pigment across others for special textural effects or to raise the key of a dark-coloured area.
Hog-bristle brushes are used for much of the painting, with pointed, red sable-hair brushes generally preferred for outlines and fine details. Oils, however, are the most plastic and responsive of all painting mediums and can be handled with all manner of tools. The later works of Titian and Rembrandtfor example, appear to have been executed with thumbs, fingers, rags, spatulas, and brush handles. With these and other unconventional tools and techniques, oil painters create pigment textures ranging from delicate tonal modulations to unvarying, mechanical finishes and from clotted, impasto ridges of paint to barely perceptible stains.
Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, oil painting by Titian, c. Contours and shadows were stained in streaks and washes of diluted paint, while lighter areas were created with dry, opaque scumbles, the tinted ground meanwhile providing the halftones and often remaining untouched for passages of local or reflected colour in the completed picture.
This use of oil paint was particularly suited to expressing atmospheric effects and to creating chiaroscuroor light and dark, patterns. It also encouraged a bravura handling of paint, where stabs, flourishes, lifts, and pressures of the brush economically described the most subtle changes of form, texture, and colour according to the influence exerted by the tinted ground through the varying thicknesses of overlaid pigment.
This method was still practiced by the 19th-century painters, such as John ConstableJ. The Impressionistshowever, found the luminosity of a brilliant white ground essential to the alla prima technique with which they represented the colour intensities and shifting lights of their plein air open air subjects.
Most oil paintings since then have been executed on white surfaces. The likelihood of eventual warping also prohibited using the large number of braced wood panels required to make an alternative support for an extensive mural painting in oils. Because canvas can be woven to any length and because an oil-painted surface is elastic, mural paintings could be executed in the studio and rolled and restretched on a wooden framework at the site or marouflaged fastened with an adhesive directly onto a wall surface.
Granny Goodness is not, by any stretch of the imagination, a nice old lady. Amazing Grace is far from the saint her name implies. The title character of Empowered frequently ends up in fanservicey bondage situations and is plagued with self-confidence and body-image issues. Scott Summers is a Hurting Hero who lost any shred of idealism long ago. Shattered Glass takes place in a Mirror Universe where the Autobots are evil and the Decepticons are good, making the latter faction's name ironic.
Various characters that had Meaningful Names for their original personality likewise become this. Lex Luthor is the archenemy of Superman, The Superhero. Depending on the continuity, "Lex" is usually short for either "Alexei" or "Alexander", both of which are greek, meaning, "Defender" and "Defender of men" respectively. To quote Wa'at Alahf's mini-biography from the beginning of each book, "This fellow, despite his name, didn't laugh very often.
Planet Terry has Princess Ugly, who turns out to be beautiful when Terry and his friends go to search for her. Fanworks of the My Little Pony: How he got the name makes perfect sensebut still That injustice-hating Emberhund's name? Something the Parrs definitely are not. Then subverted in the ending, where Flash is revealed to be a street racer. Tundra Town's most notorious crime boss, Mr. Bigturns out to be a shrew, one of the smallest species of mammals. Milo's Return has Edgar Volgud.
His name seems a bastardization of the German vohl gut "all a-okay", "entirely good". Did we mention he's the Age Without Youth soul-bankrupt antagonist with hardly any redeeming qualities to his name? In The ImpostorsHappy Franks is so depressed he keeps trying to kill himself. Richmond Valentine from Kingsman: On the other hand, this Valentine has nothing but contempt for humanity and is engineering a worldwide Hate Plague.
In EnchantedDisney's Affectionate Parody of itself, Nancy, who is about to marry a single father, has the same last name "Tremaine" as the Wicked Stepmother in Cinderella. Nancy turns out to be perfectly nice, wants her beloved to be happy and snags the prince at the end. In Mean Girls 2, the promiscuous member of the new Plastics is named Chastity. So they're given to Jean-Baptiste Emmanuel Zorg, an insane and callous weapons magnate with a fetish for "creative" destruction.
In Roomwhile Ma's name was never revealed in the book, in the movie, it was revealed to be Joy. In The Wind What would you name a town in the middle of a bone-dry desert that is afflicted by neverending, punishing winds? Thus, he's wealthier than his partner, Cash. Sam White identifies strongly as being black. The Antichrist has the given name "Angel".
Christabella, aka "Christ the Beautiful", is the Daughter of Satan. Dormer's name is a cognate for the word "to sleep" in several Romance languages. Even moreso, his first name is "Will. None of the children live up to their names. Adora Belle Dearheart from Going Postal is anything but adorable. Most people who know her call her "Killer". Her love interest, Moist von Lipwig, calls her "Spike".
Mind you, she's a wonderful person, just not "adorable". Captain Murderer from Snuff is a smuggler but quite attached to his name. There's an idiot in Purgatory punishing for reveling the suffering of her neighbors, and she points out that, "Although my name is Sapia, I was anything but Sapient. Pippin Galadriel Moonchild in Good Omens goes by Pepper, as she is a short scruffy tomboy with a temper. The Kitty Norville series is about a werewolf named Kitty.
Whenever anyone comments on it, she says the name came first. In Jennifer Scales and the Messenger of Light, the twisted, monstrous villain with darkness-related powers is named Evangelos, which means "Messenger of Light".
A Song of Ice and Fire Two of the Freys have names that are ironic in terms of who they are named for.
The severely mentally retarded Aegon generally known as Jinglebell because his Jerkass grandfather makes him act as a jester is named after a great military leader and ruler. Similarly, Rhaegar Frey, a slimy and totally mediocre man, is named after a Pretty Boy Knight in Shining Armor who was both a sensitive intellectual and a military genius.
As a result, it is a popular name for Westerosi peasants. However, perhaps because they are peasants most of the Pates in-story are singularly unlucky: At one point, the outlaw Tom O'Sevens is listing his grievances against the Lannisters, and he names at least five Pates he knew whose deaths he blames on them, including his cousin Ser Pate who was killed in a tourney by Gregor Clegane.
Another Pate is the royal whipping boy and gets flogged for bad deeds by the Princes or just when Cersei wants to teach her son a lesson. Pate of Oldtown was murdered and had his identity stolen by a shape-shifting assassin. The Brave Companions is a mercenary band of criminals, psychos and exiles from across the narrow sea. Despite their title, they aren't particularly renowned for bravery being mostly cowards that sides for whoever is winning at the moment and are better at hurting innocents than being fighting.
They are better known for other nicknames such as "Bloody Mummers" or "Footman", but don't dare to call them that to their faces if you want to keep your limbs. Varsian the Immortal from Lacuna dies moments after introducing himself. This is, however, coincidental, as the name is derived from the Greek Amykos.
He's a deaf mute. In Garry Kilworth's House Of Tribesevery single member of the mouse tribe "Invisibles" has that kind of a name; Hearallthings deafGoingdownfast an excellent swimmerFerocious the meekest oneetc.
The eponymous character of the Koziolek Matolek series has a name that means literally "silly billy-goat". However, he isn't really stupid, and the narrative even notes several times how smart and clever he is. What do you call a character who accidentally killed his own little sister a second time, accidentally made his best friend's Demonic Possession permanent and had to do it a second time to save the world and is in unrequited love with a lesbian succubus? If you're Mike Carey, you name him Felix "lucky" and, for good measure, name the poor bastard with the chronic Demonic Possession Rafael.
In the foreword of Agatha Christie 's The Labours of Hercules, the irony of Hercule Poirot 's name as he is a highly cerebral Lawful Good Armchair Detective named after an Anti-Heroic Boisterous Bruiser is pointed out to him by a classicist, leading him to take a series of 12 cases with allusions to the classical labours of Hercules.
Another Agatha Christie example is one half of spy duo Tommy and Tuppence ; Tuppence's real name is Prudence, but she is the more hot-headed and impetuous of the two, very rarely ever acting with any.
One of the protagonists of Doctrine of Labyrinths is named Felix, as in "lucky," but his misfortunes include Mind Rapeslavery, forced prostitution, physical torture, temporary insanity, incarceration in a dungeon and a Bedlam House, frame-ups for murder and treason, exile, and the horrible deaths of various people close to him.
Ryou has fire powers. However, it's also a bit of a Meaningful Name if you take his power into account. In EverworldJalil at one point mentions that his name is Hindi for "godlike," and Lampshades how odd that is for an African-American atheist. Also, the queen of the Amazons is named Pretty Little Flower. The irony comes from his namesake: George Famed for being a dragonslayer.
In Isaac Asimov 's Robot novels, the "Spacers" are humans from the fifty interstellar colony worlds. While the Spacer name is used by both people from Earth and the Spacers themselves, the Spacer Worlds are so utopian in terms of wealth and standard of living, and the Spacers themselves Long-Lived and spoiled by luxury supported by armies of robot servants, that they have become chronically risk-averse, and the vast majority of them never actually leave the planets that they are born on to engage in space travel.
Impatience isn't her primary personality trait, but it's among them. In one of the Queens Thief books, Attolia and Eddis have a wry conversation about their ill-fitting birth names. Irene and Helen, respectively—one means peace, one is the woman whose face launched a thousand ships, and they know they don't fit the bill.
The name Petal is usually for a soft-spoken and kind she-cat. There's nothing soft about her! Anyone who knows the word meaning would expect a planet named Fecundia to be a bountiful agri-world.