Diagram B, the weft Diagram C, the tartan.
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The combining of the warp and weft. Each thread in the warp crosses each thread in the weft at right angles. Where a thread in the warp crosses a thread of the same colour in the weft they produce a solid colour on the tartan, while a thread crossing another of a different colour produces an equal mixture of the two colours. Thus, a set of two base colours produces three different colours including one mixture. The total number of colours, including mixtures, increases quadratically with the number of base colours so a set of six base colours produces fifteen mixtures and a total of twenty-one different colours.
This means that the more stripes and colours used, the more blurred and subdued the tartan's pattern becomes.
In diagram A, the sett reverses at the first pivot, then repeats, then reverses at the next pivot, and will carry on in this manner horizontally. In diagram B, the sett reverses and repeats in the same way as the warp, and also carries on in the same manner vertically.
The diagrams left illustrate the construction of a "symmetrical" tartan. However, on an "asymmetrical" tartan, the sett does not reverse at the pivots, it just repeats at the pivots. Also, some tartans very few do not have exactly the same sett for the warp and weft. This means the warp and weft will have alternate thread counts.
Tartan is recorded by counting the threads of each colour that appear in the sett.
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For example, the thread count "K4 R24 K24 Y4" corresponds to 4 black threads, 24 red threads, 24 black threads, 4 yellow threads. The shades of colour in tartan can be altered to produce variations of the same tartan. The resulting variations are termed: These terms refer to colour only.
Modern represents a tartan that is coloured using chemical dye, as opposed to natural dye. In the midth century natural dyes began to be replaced by chemical dyes which were easier to use and were more economic for the booming tartan industry. Chemical dyes tended to produce a very strong, dark colour compared to the natural dyes.
In modern colours, setts made up of blue, black and green tend to be obscured. Ancient refers to a lighter shade of tartan. These shades are meant to represent the colours that would result from fabric aging over time. Muted refers to tartan which is shade between modern and ancient.
This type of tartan is very modern, dating only from the early s. This shade is said to be the closest match to the shades attained by natural dyes used before the midth century.
One such myth is that red tartans were "battle tartans", designed so they would not show blood. It is only recently created tartans, such as Canadian provincial and territorial tartans beginning s and US state tartans beginning sthat are designed with certain symbolic meaning for the colours used.
For example, the colour green sometimes symbolises prairies or forests, blue can symbolise lakes and rivers, and the colour yellow is sometimes used to symbolise various crops.
According to the textile historian E. Barber, the Hallstatt culture of Central Europe, which is linked with ancient Celtic populations and flourished between the 8th and 6th centuries BC, produced tartan-like textiles. Some of them were discovered inremarkably preserved, in the Hallstatt salt mines near SalzburgAustria. It was uncovered at Falkirk in StirlingshireScotland, about metres north-west of the Antonine Wall. The fragment was stuffed into the mouth of an earthenware pot containing almost 2, Roman coins.
The Falkirk tartan has a simple check design, of natural light and dark wool. Early forms of tartan like this are thought to have been invented in pre-Roman times, and would have been popular among the inhabitants of the northern Roman provinces   as well as in other parts of Northern Europe such as Jutlandwhere the same pattern was prevalent.
The present official Clan Campbell tartans are predominantly blue, green and black. By the late 16th century there are numerous references to striped or checkered plaids. It is not until the late 17th or early 18th century that any kind of uniformity in tartan is thought to have occurred.
He expressly wrote that the inhabitants of various islands and the mainland of the Highlands were not all dressed alike, but that the setts and colours of the various tartans varied from isle to isle. For many centuries the patterns were loosely associated with the weavers of a particular area, though it was common for highlanders to wear a number of different tartans at the same time. A charter granted to Hector Maclean of Duart requires feu duty on land paid as 60 ells of cloth of white, black and green colours.
A witness of the Battle of Killiecrankie describes " McDonnell 's men in their triple stripes". From the government force of the Highland Independent Companies introduced a standardised tartan chosen to avoid association with any particular clan, and this was formalised when they became the Black Watch regiment in The world's first permanent colour photographtaken by English photographer Thomas Sutton inwas of a tartan ribbon.
Efforts to pacify the Highlands led to the Dress Act ofbanning tartans, except for the Highland regiments of the British army. Wilson corresponded with his agents in the Highlands to get information and samples of cloth from the clan districts to enable him to reproduce "perfectly genuine patterns" and recorded over setts bymany of which were tentatively named.
At this time many setts were simply numbered, or given fanciful names such as the " Robin Hood " tartan, not associated with any specific clan. By the 19th century the Highland romantic revival, inspired by James Macpherson 's Ossian poems and the writings of Sir Walter Scottled to wider interest, with clubs like the Celtic Society of Edinburgh welcoming Lowlanders.
The pageantry invented for the visit of King George IV to Scotland brought a sudden demand for tartan cloth and made it the national dress of the whole of Scotland, rather than just the Highlands and Islands, with the invention of many new clan-specific tartans to suit.
Royal patronage and the tartan craze[ edit ] Wilkie 's idealised depiction of George IVin full Highland dressduring the visit to Scotland in [note 4] The popularity of tartan was greatly increased by the royal visit of George IV to Edinburgh in George IV was the first reigning monarch to visit Scotland in years.
An error in the chronological placement of persons, events, objects or customs. Is it a remnant of the early Celtic race? Was it only later brought into Scotland by migrating Gaels? Most of our assumptions are based on myth, legend and the anachronistic Hollywood film industry. They are infamous for using objects, customs and wardrobes that have no business being in some of the movies. For example, the costumer on the movie Braveheart didn't do much historical research by fitting Mel Gibson with a kilt.
He was playing the role of a 13th century warrior, wearing a 17th century garment and painting a blue face from the 2nd century. There is no evidence in early Irish records to support the theory that the kilt was invented in Ireland.
Many stone carvings on crosses and monuments in Ireland, dating before the 11th century, claim that the figures are wearing kilts. This is inaccurate because what is actually pictured is called a leine, or Irish tunic. The leine may have a skirt reaching to the knee but it is simply the lower part of the tunic, not a separate garment as the kilt is. It is not related to the kilt in any way, nor can it be said to be an early one. There is also some confusion about the garments worn by soldiers and knights.
They were wearing quilted armor from the Middle Ages known as cotuns in Irish. They are long, heavy, quilted and padded tunics that serve as light armor. In ancient carvings, the quilting is depicted with vertical lines running down the tunic, which is often mistaken for pleating, and the knee length garments are often claimed to be kilts.
In the 16th century, again we find representations of Irish men that are supposed to be wearing kilts. There are depictions of many figures wearing garments with heavily pleated skirts. These are not modern kilts, but leines, which by this time had evolved into wrap around shirts with wide, hanging sleeves and elaborately pleated skirts.
Nowhere has good solid evidence been found to support the kilt being worn in Ireland. At the earliest, only since the middle of the 19th century, has it even been suggested that the kilt was worn in Ireland. Irish writers of the time never mention the wearing of the kilt at all. Is the kilt a form of medieval dress?
At renaissance fairs men may be seen in very modern kilts with what are sold as Jacobite shirts, but these people are simply believing what they have been taught by the poorly researched myths that pass for Scottish history.
The earliest documentation for Scotland is from In the Magnus Berfaet saga, King Magnus goes to the western isles of Scotland and adopts the garments worn there, referred to as 'barelegged men'.
Wishing to prove the early existence of a kilt, people usually cite this document but a kilt is never mentioned. Just because of the fact that these men went barelegged, the assumption was made that they must have been wearing a kilt. However, the clothing that is mentioned corresponds with the contemporary dress of the Irish Gaels of the time, which was the leine.
In the 16th century, we begin to see a type of kilt called a feilidh-mhor Gaelic for great wrapa breacan-feile tartan wrapor simply a belted plaid; all considered to be the same garment. A plaid or 'plaide' is a length of heavy woolen fabric worn over the body like a shawl. It does not refer to the modern American word plaid, except that they were often of a tartan pattern, which is synonymous for plaid in America.
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This garment would be gathered into folds and belted around the body. The first reference to anything that may be taken as a belted plaid is not until as late as The clothing was made for use but mainly suited for war, not ornamentation. These were long, flowing garments capable of being neatly gathered up into folds but in no way can this be claimed as a form of the kilt.
In the 16th century they wore plaids of many colors. They preferred dark brown or natural colors, used not only for warmth but for camouflage. Since it refers to plaids and seems to indicate a tartan pattern, it is assumed that it is a kilt or belted plaid. By the description, it is not an Irish mode of dress, but was that of the Scots. The earliest picture of a belted plaid comes from afterfrom circa It depicts a length of wool or a linen-wool blend, most often of tartan pattern of between four and five yards.
However, since the material of the time was only about 25 inches wide, it would have to have been doubled in width to reach from the head to the knees. Most likely, eight or nine yards would have been obtained. This corresponds with the earliest surviving tailored kilts we have, which all contain about four yards of cloth.
There are no written instructions on how it was put on.