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  • There was overwhelming support to ensure that this domain and the content remain active and involved with the history of our airline.

    Thanks to the loyal and incredible Pacific Western Airlines alumni for all of your financial and moral support February 28, - Capt. It appears this aircraft was part of the PWA fleet from late to Photo appeared in the Vancouver Sun in August Photo was forwarded to me from Mrs. Smuland, widow of the late A. Al Smuland — From the desk of Neil Burton February 22, - Monarch Photo credit Anthony Hickey Location: Grebinski Nov 29, Looking for Sheldon Page Please contact this person via email regarding a non urgent matter.

    Barry asked the question of whether PW had considered operating the A The picture of this model was included. A definitive answer is not known ; but The first A rolled out at Toulouse in Feb Also in the; spring Canadian Airlines began operations. In order to get a position on the assembly line, advance lead discussions had to be factored in.

    Dennis Merrigan would know to what extent this occurred. At the inception of the A, Airbus made the controversial decision to go with fly by wire.

    Working 6 days a week, doing all the grooming and cleaning then being dropped off at the Inuvik bakery to prepare the trays for the next day's flights! No extra pay for all of that! No wonder the senior girls never bid to do those stints! This was while the runway was being installed for the upcoming jet service! Then it was a few years doing dawn patrol onand then I decided I should go to YVR to fly overseas.

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    These were often a 10day trip to Ireland, England, Spain, Austria and so on. Oh my and all we carried was a 21 inch samsonite suitcase with no wheels. How did we do THAT?

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    St Helens blew her top! Then my husband and I don't know when I had time to find him! Plus flying with Denis Byrne and Anne Riley that was almost the end of my career when we put ozonol on the carrot cake for Denis, knowing he hated the stuff but not aware that the aircraft groomers back in YXD rooted thru trays and ate what they could find.

    Oh yes, that was almost our undoing but somehow we managed to apologize and we kept our jobs! The cultural shock was difficult, but somehow we all survived, kept working hard, kept our sense of humour and did the job we all loved.

    I tried to keep to the sunny southern destinations. Well, after a long and wonderful career of 40 years I decided with great sadness that I would sit for the final landing in my jump seat and reflect on what a wonderful life I had had in the only industry I could have loved so much.

    It was what I was so blessed to have done all those years and with all the amazing crews I flew with. What a ride it was!

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    Just before I end this saga I have been wondering about the fact we could write a book if enough of us wrote out the stories about growing up in the aviation industry! Just before we went on the P. Strike, a group of us were ready to write a book and had a lot of letters, stories, poetry etc from retired pilots at that time and really wanted to get it going, but then Canadian was born and our lives were busier and so it never was done.

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    When the call went out from the museum a few years ago that they wanted everything we had put away in trunks for safe keeping, I gave a lot of my stuff to them, as many of you also did. I really feel we should write a book, get some of these amazing stories down. We have lost so many of our people now, and this would be aviation history as it was in the early days and it is totally unbelievable now.

    It could even be in house only. With that said, I made my last and best move July last year with my 2 - four legged friends and now have settled on the island in beautiful Cobble Hill, and yes I am on the approach to YYJ, so I am still with the crews on their final approach. I am sure there are pics out there we could include? Sep 5, - Lizzie Eschauzier.

    She has lived in Abu Dhabi, or possibly Dubai.

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    The reason for the request for research for a project that her father is familiar with. If you are in contact with Lizzie, please email the webmaster. The environment during the latest Pleistocene[ edit ] For an introduction to the radiocarbon dating techniques used by archaeologists and geologists, see radiocarbon dating.

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    Emergence and submergence of Beringia[ edit ] Figure1. Submergence of the Beringian land bridge with post-Last Glacial Maximum LGM rise in eustatic sea level During the Wisconsin Glaciationvarying portions of the Earth's water were stored as glacier ice. As water accumulated in glaciers, the volume of water in the oceans correspondingly decreased, resulting in lowering of global sea level.

    The variation of sea level over time has been reconstructed using oxygen isotope analysis of deep sea cores, the dating of marine terraces, and high resolution oxygen isotope sampling from ocean basins and modern ice caps. Estimates of the final re-submergence of the Beringian land bridge based purely on present bathymetry of the Bering Strait and eustatic sea level curve place the event around 11, years BP Figure 1.

    Ongoing research reconstructing Beringian paleogeography during deglaciation could change that estimate and possible earlier submergence could further constrain models of human migration into North America. By 21, years BP, and possibly thousands of years earlier, the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets coalesced east of the Rocky Mountains, closing off a potential migration route into the center of North America.

    Coastal alpine glaciers and lobes of Cordilleran ice coalesced into piedmont glaciers that covered large stretches of the coastline as far south as Vancouver Island and formed an ice lobe across the Straits of Juan de Fuca by 15, 14C years BP 18, cal years BP. Diverse, though not necessarily plentiful, megafaunas were present in those environments. Herb tundra dominated during the LGM, due to cold and dry conditions. The lowered sea level, and an isostatic bulge equilibrated with the depression beneath the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, exposed the continental shelf to form a coastal plain.

    The retreat was accelerated as sea levels rose and floated glacial termini. Estimates of a fully ice-free coast range between 16k [18] and 15k [10] cal years BP. Littoral marine organisms colonized shorelines as ocean water replaced glacial meltwater. Eustatic sea level rise caused flooding, which accelerated as the rate grew more rapid.

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    Opening of an ice-free corridor did not occur until after 13k to 12k cal years BP. There remain uncertainties regarding the precise dating of individual sites and regarding conclusions drawn from population genetics studies of contemporary Native Americans. It is also an open question whether this post-LGM migration represented the first peopling of the Americas, or whether there had been an earlier, pre-LGM migration which had reached South America as early as 40, years ago.

    Chronology[ edit ] In the early 21st century, the models of the chronology of migration are divided into two general approaches.

    Archaeological evidence[ edit ] Figure 2. Schematic illustration of maternal mtDNA gene-flow in and out of Beringia long chronology, single source model.

    Map of Beringia showing the exposed seafloor and glaciation at 40 kya and 16 kya.

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    The green arrow indicates the "interior migration" model along an ice-free corridor separating the major continental ice sheets, the red arrow indicates the " coastal migration " model, both leading to a "rapid colonization" of the Americas after c. A study dated evidence for the controlled use of fire to before 40 kya.

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    This interpretation was challenged in a review which concluded the features in question could also have arisen by genetic drift. Stones described as probable tools, hammerstones and anvilshave been found in southern California, at the Cerutti Mastodon sitethat are associated with a mastodon skeleton which appeared to have been processed by humans.

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    However, archaeosites that date closer to the Last Glacial Maximum on either the Siberian or the Alaskan side of Beringia are lacking. Genomic age estimates[ edit ] Further information: Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas Studies of Amerindian genetics have used high resolution analytical techniques applied to DNA samples from modern Native Americans and Asian populations regarded as their source populations to reconstruct the development of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups yDNA haplogroups and human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups mtDNA haplogroups characteristic of Native American populations.

    One model Tammetal based on Native American mtDNA Haplotypes Figure 2 proposes that migration into Beringia occurred between 30k and 25k cal years BP, with migration into the Americas occurring around 10k to 15k years after isolation of the small founding population.

    The development of high-resolution genomic analysis has provided opportunities to further define Native American subclades and narrow the range of Asian subclades that may be parent or sister subclades. For example, the broad geographic range of Haplogroup X has been interpreted as allowing the possibility of a western Eurasian, or even a European source population for Native Americans, as in the Solutrean hypothesisor suggesting a pre-Last Glacial Maximum migration into the Americas.

    Subhaplogroups D1 and D4h3 have been regarded as Native American specific based on their absence among a large sampling of populations regarded as potential descendants of source populations, over a wide area of Asia. Its parent lineage, Subhaplotype D4h, is believed to have emerged in east Asia, rather than Siberia, around 20k cal years BP.

    The descendants of source populations with the closest relationship to the genetic profile from the time when differentiation occurred are not obvious.

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    Source population models can be expected to become more robust as more results are compiled, the heritage of modern proxy candidates becomes better understood, and fossil DNA in the regions of interest is found and considered. A report published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology in January reviewed craniofacial variation focussing on differences between early and late Native Americans and explanations for these based on either skull morphology or molecular genetics.

    Arguments based on molecular genetics have in the main, according to the authors, accepted a single migration from Asia with a probable pause in Berengia, plus later bi-directional gene flow. Studies focussing on craniofacial morphology have argued that Paleoamerican remains have "been described as much closer to African and Australo-Melanesians populations than to the modern series of Native Americans", suggesting two entries into the Americas, an early one occurring before a distinctive East Asian morphology developed referred to in the paper as the "Two Components Model".

    A third model, the "Recurrent Gene Flow" [RGF] model, attempts to reconcile the two, arguing that circumarctic gene flow after the initial migration could account for morphological changes.